π‘ Problem Formulation: Converting a WAV file into a spectrogram is a common task in audio processing that involves generating a visual representation of the spectrum of frequencies in the audio file as they vary with time. Input is a WAV file, e.g., ‘sample.wav’, and the desired output is a spectrogram visualization, typically as an image file.
Method 1: Using matplotlib and scipy
Matplotlib, a popular plotting library, in conjunction with scipy, a scientific computing library, can be utilized to convert a WAV file to a spectrogram. This method involves reading the audio data with scipy and plotting the spectrogram using matplotlib’s specgram method, which provides a simple interface for spectrogram generation.
Here’s an example:
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt from scipy.io import wavfile # Read WAV file sample_rate, samples = wavfile.read('sample.wav') # Generate spectrogram plt.specgram(samples, Fs=sample_rate) plt.xlabel('Time') plt.ylabel('Frequency') plt.title('Spectrogram') plt.show()
Output: A window displaying the spectrogram of the ‘sample.wav’ file.
The code uses wavfile.read
to read the WAV file’s sample rate and data. It then calls plt.specgram
to create the spectrogram, setting the sampling frequency to the file’s sample rate. Finally, axes labels and a title are set before displaying the plot using plt.show()
.
Method 2: Using librosa
Librosa is a library for audio and music processing in Python. Converting WAV to a spectrogram with librosa involves using the library’s feature extraction functions to compute the Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) and then converting the complex values to a magnitude spectrogram.
Here’s an example:
import librosa import librosa.display import matplotlib.pyplot as plt # Load WAV file y, sr = librosa.load('sample.wav') # Compute spectrogram S = librosa.stft(y) D = librosa.amplitude_to_db(abs(S), ref=np.max) # Plot spectrogram plt.figure(figsize=(10, 4)) librosa.display.specshow(D, sr=sr, x_axis='time', y_axis='log') plt.colorbar(format='%+2.0f dB') plt.title('Spectrogram') plt.show()
Output: A window displaying the spectrogram with a logarithmic frequency axis.
This snippet first loads the WAV file using librosa.load
. It then calculates the STFT using librosa.stft
and converts it to a decibel scale with librosa.amplitude_to_db
. The result is displayed using librosa.display.specshow
, which handles the complex plotting aspects of the spectrogram.
Method 3: Using numpy and matplotlib
It’s possible to manually compute the spectrogram using numpy for numerical operations and matplotlib for visualization. This process includes calculating the Fourier transform for segments of the audio signal to create the spectrogram matrix, which is then plotted.
Here’s an example:
import numpy as np import matplotlib.pyplot as plt from scipy.io import wavfile # Load WAV file sample_rate, samples = wavfile.read('sample.wav') # Define segment length and overlap segment_length = 1024 overlap = 512 frequencies, times, spectrogram = signal.spectrogram(samples, sample_rate, nperseg=segment_length, noverlap=overlap) # Plot spectrogram plt.pcolormesh(times, frequencies, 10 * np.log10(spectrogram)) plt.ylabel('Frequency [Hz]') plt.xlabel('Time [sec]') plt.title('Spectrogram') plt.colorbar(label='Intensity [dB]') plt.show()
Output: A window displaying the spectrogram with color intensity representing magnitude.
The code reads the WAV file and defines the segment length and overlap for analysis. Then signal.spectrogram
is used to create the spectrogram data, taking into account the overlap and segment length. The data is plotted using plt.pcolormesh
with a color scale indicative of intensity.
Method 4: Using PyDub and matplotlib
PyDub is a high-level audio library that can be combined with matplotlib for spectrogram visualization. This method includes exporting the audio data into a format compatible with numpy arrays and then using familiar matplotlib plotting calls.
Here’s an example:
from pydub import AudioSegment import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import numpy as np # Load WAV file audio = AudioSegment.from_file('sample.wav') # Convert to numpy array samples = np.array(audio.get_array_of_samples()) # Generate spectrogram plt.specgram(samples, Fs=audio.frame_rate) plt.xlabel('Time') plt.ylabel('Frequency') plt.title('Spectrogram') plt.show()
Output: A window displaying the spectrogram of ‘sample.wav’.
The snippet loads the WAV file using PyDub, extracts the sample array with audio.get_array_of_samples()
, and then generates a spectrogram using matplotlib’s plt.specgram
. The method simplifies handling of different audio formats.
Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Using pyplot’s specgram method directly
If the WAV file data is already available as a NumPy array, creating a spectrogram can be a simple one-liner using matplotlib’s specgram
method directly.
Here’s an example:
plt.specgram(samples, Fs=sample_rate) plt.show()
Output: Display the spectrogram of the given samples and sample_rate in a window.
The one-liner assumes samples
and sample_rate
variables are predefined numpy array of audio samples and the sample rate, respectively. This method demonstrates the efficiency of matplotlib for quick visualization tasks.
Summary/Discussion
- Method 1: matplotlib and scipy. Strengths: Easy to use, great for quick visualizations. Weaknesses: Limited customization options for advanced users.
- Method 2: librosa. Strengths: Designed for audio analysis, offers a variety of additional features. Weaknesses: Might require additional learning for beginners.
- Method 3: numpy and matplotlib. Strengths: Provides control over the spectrogram calculation. Weaknesses: More complex and requires an understanding of signal processing concepts.
- Method 4: PyDub and matplotlib. Strengths: Simplifies audio data handling, supports multiple formats. Weaknesses: Requires an external library, additional installation.
- Method 5: One-liner matplotlib. Strengths: Quick and efficient for preloaded data. Weaknesses: Assumes prior extraction and loading of audio data.