5 Best Ways to Create a Dictionary in Python

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💡 Problem Formulation: In Python, dictionaries are collections that are unordered, changeable, and indexed. They are used to store data in key:value pairs, which makes it easy to retrieve the value associated with a specific key. This article addresses how one can create a dictionary in Python, showcasing everything from a blank dictionary to complex structures. For instance, if you have a list of countries with their corresponding capitals, how do you structure this information in a way that a Python program can easily access?

Method 1: Using Curly Braces

Creating a dictionary with curly braces {} is the most straightforward method in Python. This method manually specifies each key-value pair within the curly braces. It is a direct way to create a dictionary by adding elements one at a time or by enclosing all of them at once.

Here’s an example:

d = { 'USA': 'Washington D.C.', 'France': 'Paris', 'Japan': 'Tokyo' }

Output: {'USA': 'Washington D.C.', 'France': 'Paris', 'Japan': 'Tokyo'}

This method is simple: just enclose key-value pairs separated by commas within curly braces. Keys and values are separated by colons. This technique excels in readability and ease-of-use for small to moderately-sized dictionaries.

Method 2: Using the dict() constructor

Python’s dict() function is a versatile constructor that can create dictionaries from various forms of arguments, such as keyword arguments, tuples, and lists. It’s useful for dynamically constructing dictionaries from sequences or even directly from keyword arguments.

Here’s an example:

d = dict(USA='Washington D.C.', France='Paris', Japan='Tokyo')

Output: {'USA': 'Washington D.C.', 'France': 'Paris', 'Japan': 'Tokyo'}

By calling the dict() function and passing key-values as keyword arguments, we initialize a dictionary effortlessly. Keyword arguments make the code clean, but key names have to be valid Python identifiers.

Method 3: Using Zip to Combine Lists

Creating a dictionary by zipping together two lists—one for keys, the other for values—is both quick and readable. The built-in zip() function pairs the elements of the two lists, creating tuples that can be transformed via the dict() function.

Here’s an example:

countries = ['USA', 'France', 'Japan']
capitals = ['Washington D.C.', 'Paris', 'Tokyo']
d = dict(zip(countries, capitals))

Output: {'USA': 'Washington D.C.', 'France': 'Paris', 'Japan': 'Tokyo'}

This approach is particularly useful when keys and values are stored in separate sequences and need to be aggregated into a dictionary. It is also very pythonic and idiomatic for combining data.

Method 4: Using Dictionary Comprehension

Dictionary comprehension is a concise way to create dictionaries by iterating over an iterable. Similar to list comprehensions, they’re a clear and fast method to construct dictionaries dynamically by applying an expression over a sequence or iterable.

Here’s an example:

d = {country: len(country) for country in ['USA', 'France', 'Japan']}

Output: {'USA': 3, 'France': 6, 'Japan': 5}

This method uses dictionary comprehension to map each country’s name to its length, demonstrating how to transform list elements into dictionary keys and values compactly.

Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Using fromkeys()

The fromkeys() method is a class method that creates a new dictionary with keys from an iterable and values all set to a specified value. This is a fast track to initializing a dictionary with a fixed value for all keys, which you can then update individually.

Here’s an example:

d = {}.fromkeys(['USA', 'France', 'Japan'], 'Unknown')

Output: {'USA': 'Unknown', 'France': 'Unknown', 'Japan': 'Unknown'}

This method creates a dictionary where all keys derive from a list, and each key is initially associated with a value of ‘Unknown’. This can be particularly efficient when you need to initialize a dictionary with default values.


  • Method 1: Using Curly Braces. It’s very simple and works well for small dictionaries. However, it can be cumbersome for creating larger ones.
  • Method 2: Using the dict() constructor. It offers clean syntax and can initialize dictionaries dynamically, but keys cannot have non-identifier strings.
  • Method 3: Using Zip to Combine Lists. Ideal for situations where data is already separated into keys and values. It’s pythonic but not as readable when data isn’t structured accordingly.
  • Method 4: Using Dictionary Comprehension. It can succinctly transform existing iterables, such as creating a new dictionary based on some condition or operation. It requires understanding of comprehension syntax, which may not be beginner-friendly.
  • Bonus Method 5: Using fromkeys(). Best for quickly initializing dictionaries with the same default value but requires subsequent operations to assign actual values.