**π‘ Problem Formulation:** A waffle chart is a compelling visualization tool that displays parts of a whole in a square grid, where each square represents a percentage point or a proportionate value. For instance, if you wish to represent the market share of different smartphone brands, the input could be a list of brands with their corresponding market shares, and the desired output would be a grid-like chart visually segmenting the market distribution.

## Method 1: Utilizing Matplotlib and Numpy

This method involves using a combination of Matplotlib for plotting and Numpy for numerical operations. The function `create_waffle_chart()`

takes the proportions of each category and translates them into a matrix form that Matplotlib can use to create the chart.

Here’s an example:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import numpy as np def create_waffle_chart(categories, values, height, width, colormap, value_sign=''): total_values = sum(values) category_proportions = [(float(value) / total_values) for value in values] total_num_tiles = width * height tiles_per_category = [round(proportion * total_num_tiles) for proportion in category_proportions] waffle_chart = np.zeros((height, width)) category_index = 0 tile_index = 0 for col in range(width): for row in range(height): tile_index += 1 if tile_index > sum(tiles_per_category[0:category_index]): category_index += 1 waffle_chart[row, col] = category_index fig = plt.figure() colormap = plt.cm.coolwarm plt.matshow(waffle_chart, cmap=colormap) plt.axis('off') plt.show() # Example of usage category_names = ['Category A', 'Category B', 'Category C'] values = [30, 40, 30] width = 40 height = 10 create_waffle_chart(category_names, values, height, width, plt.cm.coolwarm)

The output is a waffle chart plot with three different sections corresponding to the categories with different colors.

This code snippet defines the function `create_waffle_chart()`

, which creates a waffle chart based on the proportions of the given categories. It calculates the number of tiles that each category should occupy in the chart, creates a matrix to represent the chart, and then displays the chart using Matplotlib’s functions.

## Method 2: Using the PyWaffle Library

PyWaffle is an external library specifically designed for generating waffle charts in Python. It is a wrapper around Matplotlib and simplifies many of the steps needed in the first method. To use PyWaffle, it needs to be installed via `pip install pywaffle`

.

Here’s an example:

from pywaffle import Waffle fig = plt.figure( FigureClass=Waffle, rows=10, values={'Category A': 30, 'Category B': 40, 'Category C': 30}, colors=("#232066", "#983D3D", "#DCB732"), legend={'loc': 'upper left', 'bbox_to_anchor': (1,1)}, icons='child', icon_size=18, icon_legend=True ) plt.show()

The output is a visually-pleasing waffle chart representing the given categories and their corresponding values with icons.

This code utilizes PyWaffle to create a waffle chart succinctly. It takes a dictionary of category names and values, and the `Waffle`

class from PyWaffle takes care of dividing the figure into the specified number of rows and columns and filling it with the corresponding sections and colors.

## Method 3: Custom Implementation with Patches

In this method, we manually draw a waffle chart using Matplotlib’s patches. This gives us a lot of control over the appearance of each square in the waffle chart and is suited for those who want to fine-tune the chart extensively.

Here’s an example:

import matplotlib.patches as patches fig = plt.figure() ax = fig.add_subplot(111) category_colors = plt.cm.viridis(np.linspace(0, 1, len(values))) start_pos = 0 for i, (cat, val) in enumerate(zip(category_names, values)): ax.add_patch( patches.Rectangle((0.05, start_pos), 0.8, val * height / total_values, edgecolor='white', facecolor=category_colors[i] ) ) start_pos += val * height / total_values plt.axis('off') plt.show()

The output is a customized waffle chart with individually drawn patches for each category segment, showing distinct sections with different colors.

This snippet uses the `patches`

module from Matplotlib to draw rectangles for each category proportion. The chart is highly customizable and can be fine-tuned for specific aesthetic requirements, but requires more manual setup compared to other methods.

## Method 4: Plotting with Squarify

Squarify is a Python library that can create tree maps, which are closely related to waffle charts. With a few adjustments, Squarify can be repurposed to create a waffle-like representation of data.

Here’s an example:

import squarify normed_values = squarify.normalize_sizes(values, width, height) rects = squarify.squarify(normed_values, 0, 0, width, height) colors = [plt.cm.Spectral(i/float(len(category_names))) for i in range(len(category_names))] squarify.plot(rects, label=category_names, color=colors, pad=True) plt.axis('off') plt.show()

The output is a tree map that resembles a waffle chart, where each category is represented by a colored square area proportional to its value.

The code uses the `squarify`

library to normalize the values and calculate the size and positions of the rectangles to be plotted. Then, it uses the `plot`

function from squarify to generate a tree map-like plot that works as a waffle chart with padding between the squares.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Plotting With plt.bar

Sometimes, a simple bar chart can be styled to mimic a waffle chart. This one-liner trick uses the plt.bar function to create a faux waffle chart effortlessly.

Here’s an example:

plt.bar(x=range(len(values)), height=values, tick_label=category_names, color=category_colors) plt.show()

The output is a bar chart styled to give an appearance similar to a waffle chart, but with less granularity and representation accuracy.

The `plt.bar`

function creates a standard bar chart. This approach does not create a true waffle chart but may be a quick workaround for visualizing proportions in a bar-like grid format.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1:**Utilizing Matplotlib and Numpy. Strengths: Highly customizable and no need for external libraries. Weaknesses: Most complex and involves manual calculations.**Method 2:**Using the PyWaffle Library. Strengths: Easiest method with a dedicated library. Weaknesses: Requires installation of an external library, and has less flexibility than pure Matplotlib.**Method 3:**Custom Implementation with Patches. Strengths: Offers fine-grained control over chart appearance. Weaknesses: Requires more manual coding and can be time-consuming.**Method 4:**Plotting with Squarify. Strengths: Generates aesthetically pleasing charts with minimal effort. Weaknesses: Not an actual waffle chart but a treemap, may not be suitable for all datasets.**Method 5:**One-Liner with plt.bar. Strengths: Quick and straightforward. Weaknesses: Not a true waffle chart and provides the least accurate representation.