5 Best Ways to Declare a Global Variable in Python

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πŸ’‘ Problem Formulation: When programming in Python, it is sometimes necessary to declare a variable that can be accessed across different functions and scopes within a module or a script. This article outlines several methods for declaring global variables in Python, ensuring that variables modified within functions reflect the changes globally. We’ll tackle scenarios with initialization on script startup and subsequent modification throughout the program’s execution.

Method 1: Simple Global Variable Declaration

One of the most straightforward methods to declare a global variable is to define it at the top level of a Python module. This approach sets the variable in the global scope, making it accessible throughout the module unless shadowed by a local variable.

Here’s an example:

# Global variable declaration
global_counter = 0

def increment_counter():
    global global_counter
    global_counter += 1

print('Global counter:', global_counter)

The output of this code snippet:

Global counter: 1

This code defines global_counter at the module level and then increments by one within the increment_counter function by using the global keyword to refer to the global variable. The print statement confirms the variable has been incremented successfully in the global scope.

Method 2: Global Variables within a Function

For a variable to be considered global within a function, you must explicitly declare it as such using the global keyword. This tells Python that any modification to the variable within the function should apply to the variable in the module’s top-level scope.

Here’s an example:

def define_global():
    global global_message
    global_message = 'Hello, World!'


The output of this code snippet:

Hello, World!

In this snippet, the function define_global is used to declare and set the value of a global variable global_message, which is then accessible from the global scope, as demonstrated by the print function.

Method 3: Using a Singleton Class

Another way to handle global variables is by encapsulating them within a class designed following the Singleton pattern. The pattern ensures a class has only one instance and provides a global point of access to it, making it suitable for managing global state.

Here’s an example:

class GlobalState:
    instance = None

    def __new__(cls):
        if cls.instance is None:
            cls.instance = super(GlobalState, cls).__new__(cls)
            cls.instance.value = 'Initial Value'
        return cls.instance

global_state = GlobalState()

global_state.value = 'Updated Value'

The output of this code snippet:

Initial Value
Updated Value

Here, the GlobalState class serves as a container for global variables, implemented as class-level attributes. The __new__ method ensures only a single instance exists, and this instance is used to maintain a single global state.

Method 4: Using a Module as a Namespace

Python modules themselves can be used as a namespace for global variables. This method involves creating a separate module (file) to store all global variables. The module can then be imported wherever the globals are needed.

Here’s an example:

# globals.py module
global_list = []

# main.py module
import globals

def manipulate_global_list():


The output of this code snippet:


By creating a separate globals.py file and defining a global variable there, any script or module that imports globals.py can access and modify the global variable. The example shows appending a string to a list declared globally.

Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Environment Variables

Environment variables are a universal form of global state. In Python, you can use the os module to access and set environment variables, which remain global across all running scripts, as long as they share the same environment.

Here’s an example:

import os

# Set environment variable
os.environ['GLOBAL_ENV'] = '42'

# Get environment variable
print('Environment variable GLOBAL_ENV:', os.environ['GLOBAL_ENV'])

The output of this code snippet:

Environment variable GLOBAL_ENV: 42

Setting an environment variable using os.environ is a powerful way to maintain a variable value that needs to be accessed by multiple programs or scripts that run within the same environment.


  • Method 1: Simple Declaration. Strengths: Easy to understand and use. Weaknesses: Variable shadowing can occur, leading to potential confusion.
  • Method 2: Within a Function. Strengths: Explicit declaration enhances readability. Weaknesses: Variables must be declared for every function that modifies them.
  • Method 3: Singleton Class. Strengths: Encapsulated and clean approach. Weaknesses: More complex, potential overkill for simple use cases.
  • Method 4: Module as Namespace. Strengths: Modules provide a clear structure. Weaknesses: Importing modules can introduce dependencies.
  • Bonus Method 5: Environment Variables. Strengths: Persistent across scripts. Weaknesses: String-based, less dynamic, and require more care to avoid clashes with existing environment variables.