**π‘ Problem Formulation:** Python coders often need to check if a given pair of numbers (x, y) are even or odd. This fundamental task can guide the flow of logic in various algorithms and applications. For instance, given the input (x, y) as (4, 7), the desired output would indicate that x is even, and y is odd.

## Method 1: Using the Modulus Operator

This method involves the modulus operator `%`

, which determines the remainder of division. When a number is divided by 2, if the remainder is 0, that number is even; otherwise, it is odd. This is a straightforward approach commonly used in programming to check a number’s parity.

Here’s an example:

def check_parity(x, y): return (("even" if x % 2 == 0 else "odd"), ("even" if y % 2 == 0 else "odd")) result = check_parity(4, 7) print(result)

Output: (‘even’, ‘odd’)

This code snippet defines a function `check_parity`

that takes two arguments, x and y. It uses the modulus operator to determine the remainder when x and y are divided by 2. Based on the remainder, it returns a tuple indicating whether x and y are ‘even’ or ‘odd’.

## Method 2: Using Bitwise AND Operator

This method leverages the bitwise AND operator `&`

. For any integer x, x & 1 will be 1 if x is odd, and 0 if x is even. This is due to the least significant bit in binary representation of odd numbers being 1 and for even numbers being 0.

Here’s an example:

def check_parity_bitwise(x, y): return (("even" if x & 1 == 0 else "odd"), ("even" if y & 1 == 0 else "odd")) result = check_parity_bitwise(4, 7) print(result)

Output: (‘even’, ‘odd’)

This snippet introduces the function `check_parity_bitwise`

applying the bitwise AND operation to check if x and y are odd or even. It’s a more performant choice at the bit-level, especially useful when doing low-level programming or optimizations.

## Method 3: By Converting to Boolean

Python treats zero as `False`

and non-zero values as `True`

. You can exploit this by dividing the number by 2 and converting the remainder to a boolean, checking for its truthiness to determine if the number is even or odd.

Here’s an example:

def check_parity_bool(x, y): return (("even" if not x % 2 else "odd"), ("even" if not y % 2 else "odd")) result = check_parity_bool(4, 7) print(result)

Output: (‘even’, ‘odd’)

The `check_parity_bool`

function uses the truthiness of the modulus operation’s result to determine if the input numbers are even or odd. This method makes the code more Pythonic and readable by leveraging the language’s treatment of truthy and falsey values.

## Method 4: Using Lambda Functions

Lambda functions in Python allow you to create small, anonymous function objects at runtime. This approach is more succinct and is useful when you want to inline the parity check instead of defining a separate function.

Here’s an example:

check_parity_lambda = lambda x, y: (("even" if x % 2 == 0 else "odd"), ("even" if y % 2 == 0 else "odd")) result = check_parity_lambda(4, 7) print(result)

Output: (‘even’, ‘odd’)

Here, `check_parity_lambda`

is a lambda function that receives x and y and returns a tuple with ‘even’ or ‘odd’ based on their parity. While concise, lambda functions can sometimes reduce readability when overused or for more complex logic.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

This one-liner method takes advantage of list comprehension, a concise way to create lists in Python. It not only evaluates the evenness or oddness but also packs the results in one slick line of code.

Here’s an example:

result = ["even" if num % 2 == 0 else "odd" for num in (4, 7)] print(result)

Output: [‘even’, ‘odd’]

The provided one-liner uses list comprehension to iterate over a tuple containing x and y, then applies the parity check for each element. This produces a list containing the results, offering a neat and Pythonic way to perform the task in a single line.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1:**Modulus Operator. Simple and widely known. May not be the most performant for a large number of checks.**Method 2:**Bitwise AND Operator. Efficient at the bit level. Can seem less intuitive to developers not familiar with bitwise operations.**Method 3:**Converting to Boolean. Pythonic approach using language features. May be confusing for beginners not understanding truthy/falsey values.**Method 4:**Lambda Functions. Offers in-line brevity. Can hinder readability for more complex conditions or operations.**Method 5:**List Comprehension. Compact and elegant for simple conditions. Not best for readability when applied to more complex cases.