**π‘ Problem Formulation:** The task is to efficiently extract the diagonal elements of a square matrix using the Einstein summation convention in Python. Einstein summation is a notational convention that simplifies the process of summing over repeated indices in matrices and tensors. For a given input matrix, such as `[[1, 2], [3, 4]]`

, we aim to extract the diagonal elements `[1, 4]`

using various Python methods.

## Method 1: Using NumPy’s `einsum`

Function

NumPy’s `einsum`

function allows for concise and efficient operations on multi-dimensional arrays using the Einstein summation convention. It leverages the power of underlying C libraries for performance and can handle complex array operations with simple syntax. By specifying the subscript notation, we can extract the diagonal easily.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np matrix = np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]]) diagonal = np.einsum('ii->i', matrix) print(diagonal)

Output: `[1 4]`

This code snippet imports the NumPy library, defines a 2×2 matrix, and then extracts its diagonal using the `einsum`

function with the subscript ‘ii->i’ which indicates that we’re selecting the i-th element from each i-th row and column. The result is the diagonal of the matrix.

## Method 2: Using NumPy’s `diag`

Function

Although not leveraging the Einstein summation convention directly, NumPy’s built-in `diag`

function is a straightforward way to extract the diagonal of a matrix. This method is very direct and readable, making it suitable for simple tasks where advanced summation patterns aren’t needed.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np matrix = np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]]) diagonal = np.diag(matrix) print(diagonal)

Output: `[1 4]`

The `diag`

function of NumPy is used here to directly extract the diagonal elements from the square matrix. It is readable and straightforward but doesn’t employ the Einstein summation convention which can be a downside if one is looking to practice or implement such conventions.

## Method 3: Manual Iteration

Manually iterating over the matrix allows for the extraction of the diagonal without the need for any libraries. This method is not recommended for large matrices or performance-critical applications due to Python’s slower loops compared to optimized C-based NumPy operations.

Here’s an example:

matrix = [[1, 2], [3, 4]] diagonal = [matrix[i][i] for i in range(len(matrix))] print(diagonal)

Output: `[1, 4]`

This code constructs the diagonal by iterating over the range of indices of the matrix and selecting the corresponding elements where the row and column indices match. It’s simple but inefficient for larger matrices.

## Method 4: Advanced Indexing with NumPy

NumPy supports a variety of advanced indexing techniques that can be used to slice arrays and retrieve specific parts like the diagonal. This method allows for concise code but requires understanding of NumPy’s advanced indexing rules.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np matrix = np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]]) diagonal = matrix[np.arange(2), np.arange(2)] print(diagonal)

Output: `[1 4]`

Here, advanced indexing is used with `np.arange`

to create an array of indices that’s utilized to extract the diagonal. It’s concise and uses NumPy’s optimized operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Using List Comprehension with `zip`

List comprehension combined with the `zip`

function can extract diagonals in a one-liner without additional libraries. It is more Pythonic and readable but may not have the best performance for large matrices.

Here’s an example:

matrix = [[1, 2], [3, 4]] diagonal = [row[i] for i, row in enumerate(zip(*matrix))] print(diagonal)

Output: `[1, 4]`

This one-liner uses list comprehension to form the diagonal. The `zip(*matrix)`

function transposes the matrix and by enumerating over it we extract the elements where the index matches the row index. It’s elegant but not as fast as NumPy-based methods.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1:**NumPy’s`einsum`

. Strengths: Highly efficient, versatile for complex operations. Weaknesses: Requires learning subscript notation.**Method 2:**NumPy’s`diag`

. Strengths: Very simple and readable. Weaknesses: Doesn’t use Einstein summation, isn’t as flexible for other operations.**Method 3:**Manual Iteration. Strengths: No dependencies required. Weaknesses: Inefficient, especially for larger matrices.**Method 4:**Advanced Indexing with NumPy. Strengths: Optimized and concise. Weaknesses: Can be confusing for those not familiar with advanced indexing techniques.**Method 5:**One-Liner with`zip`

. Strengths: Pythonic, requires no imports. Weaknesses: Not as efficient as NumPy methods, can be cryptic.