**π‘ Problem Formulation:** You work with datasets in Python and need to filter rows based on whether elements fall within a certain numeric range. For example, given a list of lists (representing rows of data), your goal is to extract only those rows where a specific column’s value is between 10 and 20. The methods described here will demonstrate how to achieve this, ensuring you can quickly handle such data filtering tasks with precision.

## Method 1: Using List Comprehension

List comprehension provides a concise way to create lists. It can be used for filtering rows in a dataset by including an if-condition that checks if the element in a specific column falls within the desired numeric range. This approach is Pythonic, readable, and efficient for smaller datasets.

Here’s an example:

data = [[5, 12, 17], [15, 20, 25], [7, 21, 14]] filtered_data = [row for row in data if 10 <= row[1] <= 20] print(filtered_data)

Output: `[[5, 12, 17], [15, 20, 25]]`

In the code snippet above, list comprehension is used to iterate over each row in the data list. The conditional expression checks if the second element (at index 1) of each row is within the range 10 to 20. Only rows that meet this criteria are included in the filtered_data list.

## Method 2: Using the Pandas Library

For those working with tabular data, the Pandas library is a staple in data manipulation and analysis. Offering DataFrame objects, it has a built-in method, `DataFrame.query()`

, which can be used to filter rows that contain elements within a specified range efficiently.

Here’s an example:

import pandas as pd df = pd.DataFrame({ 'A': [5, 15, 7], 'B': [12, 20, 21], 'C': [17, 25, 14] }) filtered_df = df.query('10 <= B <= 20') print(filtered_df)

Output:

A B C 0 5 12 17 1 15 20 25

We utilize the `DataFrame.query()`

method on a DataFrame called df to filter the rows. The query string ’10 <= B <= 20' specifies the condition that column 'B' must meet. The resulting DataFrame, filtered_df, contains only the rows where the value in column 'B' falls within the range of 10 to 20.

## Method 3: Using the filter() Function

The `filter()`

function in Python allows for an efficient way of filtering elements from an iterable. When applied with a lambda function, which specifies the condition, `filter()`

can be utilized to filter rows from a dataset where elements fall within a given range.

Here’s an example:

data = [[5, 12, 17], [15, 20, 25], [7, 21, 14]] filtered_data = list(filter(lambda row: 10 <= row[1] <= 20, data)) print(filtered_data)

Output: `[[5, 12, 17], [15, 20, 25]]`

The `filter()`

function applies the lambda function to each element in the data list. The lambda checks if the second element of each row lies between 10 and 20. The function returns a filter object, which is then converted into a list, yielding our filtered_data containing the rows that satisfy the condition.

## Method 4: Using NumPy for Large Datasets

NumPy is a library that provides support for large multi-dimensional arrays and matrices, along with a collection of mathematical functions to operate on these arrays. It can be used to apply a range-based filter on rows efficiently, handling large datasets well due to its optimized C implementation.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np data = np.array([[5, 12, 17], [15, 20, 25], [7, 21, 14]]) filtered_data = data[(data[:, 1] >= 10) & (data[:, 1] <= 20)] print(filtered_data)

Output:

[[ 5 12 17] [15 20 25]]

In this approach, NumPy boolean indexing is used to apply the condition to the second column of the array, with the slicing syntax `data[:, 1]`

. The result is a new array containing only the rows where the values in the second column meet the given range condition.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Using a Lambda with NumPy

Going a step further, one may combine lambda expressions with NumPy’s powerful array operations to accomplish the same task in a one-liner, maintaining readability and execution speed.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np data = np.array([[5, 12, 17], [15, 20, 25], [7, 21, 14]]) filtered_data = np.array(list(filter(lambda row: 10 <= row[1] <= 20, data))) print(filtered_data)

Output:

[[ 5 12 17] [15 20 25]]

The one-liner uses NumPy to create an array, applies a lambda function with a filter to iterate over the array and checks the specified range condition. The result is then converted back to an array.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: List Comprehension.**Quick and readable. Best suited for smaller datasets. Inefficient with larger datasets due to lack of optimization.**Method 2: Pandas DataFrame.query().**Ideal for tabular data. Highly readable and expressive. Not suitable for non-DataFrame data structures.**Method 3: filter() function.**Pythonic and effective for iterables. The result needs to be explicitly converted to a list or another data structure.**Method 4: NumPy boolean indexing.**Optimal for large datasets. Can be less readable to those not familiar with NumPy’s indexing. Requires NumPy installation.**Method 5: Lambda with NumPy.**Combines the simplicity of lambda expressions with NumPy’s efficiency. It’s a compact one-liner more suited for users comfortable with lambdas and NumPy’s syntax.