**π‘ Problem Formulation:** When working with data in Python, a common task is to find the intersection of two arrays β in other words, to find elements that are common to both arrays. For example, given two arrays `array1 = [1, 2, 3, 4]`

and `array2 = [2, 4, 6, 8]`

, the desired output would be `[2, 4]`

, which represents the common elements in both arrays.

## Method 1: Using Set Intersection

Set intersection in Python is an efficient way to find the common elements between two arrays. By converting arrays into sets and using the `&`

operator or `intersection()`

method, we can obtain the shared items quickly. This method is particularly useful for large datasets due to its speed and simplicity.

Here’s an example:

array1 = [1, 2, 3, 4] array2 = [2, 4, 6, 8] common_elements = list(set(array1) & set(array2)) print(common_elements)

Output:

[2, 4]

This code snippet first converts the two arrays into sets and then uses the intersection operator to find common elements. The result is then converted back into a list for further use or display.

## Method 2: Using a Loop and Conditional

Traversing through one array and checking if its elements exist in the other array is a straightforward approach. Although not the most efficient for large datasets, this method is easy to understand and works without additional functions.

Here’s an example:

array1 = [1, 2, 3, 4] array2 = [2, 4, 6, 8] common_elements = [element for element in array1 if element in array2] print(common_elements)

Output:

[2, 4]

The above code uses a list comprehension to iterate through the first array and includes only the elements that are also found in the second array, creating a list of common elements.

## Method 3: Using the filter() Function

The `filter()`

function in Python can be utilized to find common elements by passing a lambda function that checks membership in the second array. This functional programming approach is both concise and expressive.

Here’s an example:

array1 = [1, 2, 3, 4] array2 = [2, 4, 6, 8] common_elements = list(filter(lambda x: x in array2, array1)) print(common_elements)

Output:

[2, 4]

The `filter()`

function applies a lambda function to each element in the first array, which checks for existence in the second array. The returned iterable is then converted to a list to retrieve the common elements.

## Method 4: Using NumPy Library

For numerical computations, the NumPy library offers a range of efficient array operations. The `numpy.intersect1d()`

function can be used to find the common elements between two NumPy arrays with great speed and less code.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np array1 = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4]) array2 = np.array([2, 4, 6, 8]) common_elements = np.intersect1d(array1, array2) print(common_elements)

Output:

[2 4]

This code uses the NumPy library to first create NumPy arrays from our Python lists and then applies the `intersect1d()`

function to find the common elements.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Using List Comprehension and Sets

List comprehensions in Python provide a compact way of creating lists based on existing lists. By combining it with a set for the second array, we can optimize our search for common elements.

Here’s an example:

array1 = [1, 2, 3, 4] array2 = [2, 4, 6, 8] common_elements = [element for element in array1 if element in set(array2)] print(common_elements)

Output:

[2, 4]

This snippet enhances the second method by transferring the second array into a set outside the list comprehension, reducing the overall time complexity of the membership test from O(n) to O(1).

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1:**Set Intersection. Fast and efficient for large datasets. Limited to hashable types (immutable types).**Method 2:**Loop and Conditional. Easy for beginners to understand. Potentially inefficient with large unindexed datasets.**Method 3:**Using filter(). Concise and functional. Might be slower due to function overhead for large datasets.**Method 4:**Using NumPy Library. Highly optimized for numerical data. Requires external library and works primarily with numerical arrays.**Method 5:**One-Liner using List Comprehension and Sets. Optimized and concise. Readability might be affected for those not familiar with list comprehensions.