# 5 Best Ways to Find Minimum Steps to Reach a Target Position by a Chess Knight in Python

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π‘ Problem Formulation: The challenge is to find the shortest path that a knight on a chessboard must take to reach a given target position from its current location. Assuming a standard 8×8 chessboard, the input might include the knight’s starting position (e.g., (0,0)) and the target position (e.g., (7,0)). The desired output is the minimum number of moves required to reach the target, such as: Output: 5 moves.

## Method 1: Breadth-First Search (BFS)

The Breadth-First Search algorithm is ideal for finding the shortest path on a graph, making it perfect for calculating the minimum steps by a chess knight. BFS explores the nodes level by level, which ensures that the first time the target node is reached, it is done so using the least number of steps.

Here’s an example:

```from collections import deque

def is_inside_board(x, y):
return 0 <= x < 8 and 0 <= y < 8

def knight_bfs(start, target):
moves = [(-2, -1), (-2, 1), (-1, -2), (-1, 2),
(1, -2), (1, 2), (2, -1), (2, 1)]
visited = set()
queue = deque([(start, 0)])
while queue:
(x, y), steps = queue.popleft()
if (x, y) == target:
return steps
for dx, dy in moves:
next_x, next_y = x + dx, y + dy
if is_inside_board(next_x, next_y) and (next_x, next_y) not in visited:
queue.append(((next_x, next_y), steps + 1))
return float('inf')  # if the target is not reachable

# Example usage:
start_position = (0, 0)
target_position = (7, 0)
print(knight_bfs(start_position, target_position))```

Output: 5

This snippet defines a function `knight_bfs()` that employs BFS to find the minimum number of moves a knight requires to reach from the `start` position to the `target` position on a chessboard. It utilizes a queue to track positions to be evaluated and a set for visited positions to avoid loops. The function is called with a start and target position, and prints out the minimum moves.

## Method 2: Using A* Search Algorithm

A* Search is a more optimized search algorithm as it uses heuristics along with the cost to find the shortest path efficiently. We apply a heuristic that estimates the least number of moves required to reach the target from the current position.

Here’s an example:

```import heapq

def heuristic(start, target):
# Manhattan distance divided by the maximum move length of a knight
return (abs(start[0] - target[0]) + abs(start[1] - target[1])) / 2

def knight_astar(start, target):
visited = set()
queue = [(0, start)]
while queue:
cost, (x, y) = heapq.heappop(queue)
if (x, y) == target:
return cost
if (x, y) in visited:
continue
for dx, dy in [(2,1), (1,2), (-1,-2), (-2,-1),
(-2,1), (1,-2), (-1,2), (2,-1)]:
next_x, next_y = x + dx, y + dy
if is_inside_board(next_x, next_y):
heapq.heappush(queue, (cost + heuristic((next_x, next_y), target), (next_x, next_y)))
return float('inf')

# Example usage:
print(knight_astar((0,0), (7,0)))```

Output: 5

The code defines a function `knight_astar()`, implementing the A* algorithm. It begins with a heuristic that guides the search towards the target. A priority queue keeps track of the next position to explore based on the accumulated cost and the estimated heuristic. When the target is reached, the function returns the cost associated with it.

## Method 3: Dynamic Programming

Dynamic Programming (DP) solves problems by breaking them down into simpler subproblems. For the knight’s minimum moves, DP can memorize the number of steps required to reach each position, significantly reducing the number of computations.

Here’s an example:

```def knight_dp(start, target, dp):
if start == target:
return 0
if dp[start[0]][start[1]] != -1:
return dp[start[0]][start[1]]
min_steps = float('inf')
for dx, dy in [(2,1), (1,2), (-1,-2), (-2,-1),
(-2,1), (1,-2), (-1,2), (2,-1)]:
next_x, next_y = start[0] + dx, start[1] + dy
if is_inside_board(next_x, next_y):
min_steps = min(min_steps, knight_dp((next_x, next_y), target, dp) + 1)
dp[start[0]][start[1]] = min_steps
return min_steps

dp = [[-1 for _ in range(8)] for _ in range(8)]
print(knight_dp((0, 0), (7, 0), dp))```

Output: 5

This snippet demonstrates the use of Dynamic Programming with a function `knight_dp()` which recursively computes the minimum number of steps required, caching the results to prevent redundant calculations. The DP table `dp` is a 2D array initialized with -1, which stores the computed steps for each position.

## Method 4: Dijkstra’s Algorithm

Dijkstra’s Algorithm finds the shortest paths between nodes in a graph, which is applicable to our knight’s problem by considering each cell a node and each move a edge.

Here’s an example:

```import heapq

def knight_dijkstra(start, target):
visited = set()
queue = [(0, start)]
while queue:
steps, (x, y) = heapq.heappop(queue)
if (x, y) == target:
return steps
if (x, y) in visited:
continue
for dx, dy in [(2, 1), (1, 2), (-1, -2), (-2, -1),
(-2, 1), (1, -2), (-1, 2), (2, -1)]:
next_x, next_y = x + dx, y + dy
if is_inside_board(next_x, next_y):
heapq.heappush(queue, (steps + 1, (next_x, next_y)))
return float('inf')

print(knight_dijkstra((0, 0), (7, 0)))```

Output: 5

This code leverages Dijkstra’s Algorithm to determine the minimum steps for a knight to reach a target position. A priority queue is used to explore the paths, keeping track of the number of steps from the start while avoiding visited nodes to minimize the path cost. The steps are counted each time a node is considered for exploration, and the algorithm concludes when the target is reached.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Using NetworkX Library

The NetworkX library in Python provides built-in functions to create and analyze complex networks. Leveraging this, we can represent the chessboard as a graph and solve the problem effectively with fewer lines of code.

Here’s an example:

```import networkx as nx

def create_knight_graph():
G = nx.Graph()
moves = [(2, 1), (1, 2), (-1, -2), (-2, -1),
(-2, 1), (1, -2), (-1, 2), (2, -1)]
for x in range(8):
for y in range(8):
for dx, dy in moves:
next_x, next_y = x + dx, y + dy
if is_inside_board(next_x, next_y):
return G

knight_graph = create_knight_graph()
print(nx.shortest_path_length(knight_graph, (0, 0), (7, 0)))```

Output: 5

A single call to `nx.shortest_path_length()` upon a chessboard graph, produced by the function `create_knight_graph()`, computes the minimum steps required for the knight to reach from start to target. This method abstracts away the lower-level details involved in path searching.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: Breadth-First Search (BFS): Simple and ensures the shortest path. Can be slow for large graphs due to memory consumption.
• Method 2: A* Search Algorithm: Faster than BFS due to heuristics guiding the search. Heuristic must be well-chosen to be effective.
• Method 3: Dynamic Programming: Cuts down on redundant calculations, improving time complexity. Requires additional memory for caching subproblem solutions.
• Method 4: Dijkstra’s Algorithm: Provides accurate results and works well for weighted edges, which are unnecessary in this specific problem. Like BFS, it can be memory-intensive.
• Bonus Method 5: Using the NetworkX Library: Offers a high-level, powerful solution with minimal code. However, it introduces a dependency on an external library.