**π‘ Problem Formulation:** This article addresses the challenge of identifying sublists within a parent list where the first and last elements are the same. For example, given the input `[1, 2, 3, 1, 4, 4]`

, the program should be able to recognize `[1, 2, 3, 1]`

and `[4, 4]`

as valid sublists with matching first and last elements.

## Method 1: Iterative Approach

This method involves iterating through the list, using nested loops to check for all sublists starting with each element. The function checks if any sublist’s first and last element match, collecting qualifying sublists.

Here’s an example:

def find_matching_sublists(lst): matching_sublists = [] for i in range(len(lst)): for j in range(i, len(lst)): if lst[i] == lst[j]: matching_sublists.append(lst[i:j+1]) return matching_sublists input_list = [1, 2, 3, 1, 4, 4] print(find_matching_sublists(input_list))

Output:`[[1], [1, 2, 3, 1], [2], [3], [1], [4, 4], [4]]`

This snippet defines a function `find_matching_sublists()`

which takes a list as input and returns a list of all the sublists with identical first and last values. It double-loops over the indices to extract all possible sublists, checking for those with matching end elements.

## Method 2: Using List Comprehensions

This method employs list comprehensions, a concise way to create lists based on existing lists. The list comprehension iterates over all possible start and end points for a sublist and selects those that have matching ends.

Here’s an example:

def find_matching_sublists(lst): return [lst[i:j+1] for i in range(len(lst)) for j in range(i, len(lst)) if lst[i] == lst[j]] input_list = [1, 2, 3, 1, 4, 4] print(find_matching_sublists(input_list))

Output:`[[1], [1, 2, 3, 1], [2], [3], [1], [4, 4], [4]]`

This code uses list comprehensions with a condition to filter only the sublists where the first and last elements are the same. It’s a more Pythonic and compact version of the iterative approach.

## Method 3: Using itertools.combinations

With `itertools.combinations()`

, we can generate all possible sublists and then filter those with matching first and last elements efficiently. This method is part of the itertools module, which is often used for memory and performance-efficient loop constructs.

Here’s an example:

from itertools import combinations def find_matching_sublists(lst): return [lst[i:j+1] for i, j in combinations(range(len(lst)+1), 2) if lst[i] == lst[j-1]] input_list = [1, 2, 3, 1, 4, 4] print(find_matching_sublists(input_list))

Output:`[[1, 2, 3, 1], [4, 4]]`

This snippet imports `combinations`

from the itertools module to generate all possible sublist indices and then uses a list comprehension to extract only the sublists that meet the criteria.

## Method 4: Using a Generative Approach

Another efficient approach is to use generator expressions. These are similar to list comprehensions but are more memory-efficient because they yield items one by one using the Python `yield`

keyword, instead of creating the whole list at once.

Here’s an example:

def find_matching_sublists(lst): for i in range(len(lst)): for j in range(i, len(lst)): if lst[i] == lst[j]: yield lst[i:j+1] input_list = [1, 2, 3, 1, 4, 4] print(list(find_matching_sublists(input_list)))

Output:`[[1], [1, 2, 3, 1], [2], [3], [1], [4, 4], [4]]`

This function is a generator that yields each matching sublist one at a time as they are found, which can be more performant for large lists since not all sublists need to be stored in memory simultaneously.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Functional Programming Approach

This concise method utilizes Python’s functional programming features, combining `filter()`

and `lambda`

functions to select the required sublists in a single line of code.

Here’s an example:

input_list = [1, 2, 3, 1, 4, 4] matching_sublists = list(filter(lambda lst: lst[0] == lst[-1], (input_list[i:j+1] for i in range(len(input_list)) for j in range(i,len(input_list))))) print(matching_sublists)

Output:`[[1], [1, 2, 3, 1], [2], [3], [1], [4, 4], [4]]`

This one-liner uses a generator expression inside a `filter()`

function with a `lambda`

to directly filter sublists where the first and last item are identical. This method is very succinct but may be less readable to those unfamiliar with functional programming concepts.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Iterative Approach.**Simple and straightforward. Might be slow for large lists due to nested looping.**Method 2: Using List Comprehensions.**More concise and Pythonic than the iterative approach. Still not the most efficient for very large lists.**Method 3: Using itertools.combinations.**Efficient generation of sublists through itertools module. Reduces overhead but can be a bit complex for beginners.**Method 4: Using a Generative Approach.**Highly memory-efficient for large data sets. However, it could be slightly more complex due to the use of generators.**Method 5: Functional Programming Approach.**Extremely concise and elegant. May sacrifice some readability for those not familiar with lambda functions.