**π‘ Problem Formulation:** We want to determine the maximum number of composite numbers that can add up to a given integer. For instance, if the input is `10`

, a possible output is `2`

, representing the summands `4`

and `6`

, which are both composite numbers.

## Method 1: Iterative Approach

An iterative approach methodically checks for the largest composite number less than or equal to the target number and then subtracts it from the target, repeating this process until one can no longer find a composite summand. Functionally, this method creates a sequence of composite summands that totals the original number.

Here’s an example:

def is_composite(n): if n 3: for i in range(number, 3, -1): if is_composite(i): summands += 1 number -= i break return summands print(find_max_composite_summands(10))

Output: `2`

This code snippet defines two functions. The `is_composite()`

function checks if a number is composite. The `find_max_composite_summands()`

function uses this helper to iteratively find and subtract the largest composite number from the target until it cannot find any larger composite summand, incrementing the `summands`

counter each time a composite summand is found.

## Method 2: Dynamic Programming

The dynamic programming method creates a bottom-up approach that builds an array of maximum composite summands for every number up to the target. This is more efficient than the iterative approach as it prevents redundant calculations by storing already-found values.

Here’s an example:

def find_max_composite_summands_dp(number): dp = [0] * (number + 1) for i in range(4, number + 1): if not is_composite(i): dp[i] = dp[i - 1] else: dp[i] = max(dp[i - 1], 1 + dp[i - i]) return dp[number] print(find_max_composite_summands_dp(10))

Output: `2`

This code applies dynamic programming by using a list to track the maximum number of composite summands for each value up to the given number. The `find_max_composite_summands_dp()`

function builds up the solution incrementally and is more efficient than repeated iteration for larger numbers.

## Method 3: Memoization with Recursion

Memoization with recursion caches intermediate results of the recursion to avoid redundant computations. It is a top-down approach and can be more intuitive for problems that have a natural recursive structure.

Here’s an example:

def find_max_composite_summands_memo(number, memo={}): if number in memo: return memo[number] max_summands = 0 for i in range(number, 3, -1): if is_composite(i): max_summands = max(max_summands, 1 + find_max_composite_summands_memo(number - i, memo)) memo[number] = max_summands return max_summands print(find_max_composite_summands_memo(10))

Output: `2`

This code implements a recursive function with memoization where the `memo`

dictionary saves the number of summands for each composite number it calculates. This reduces the overall number of calculations needed compared to plain recursion.

## Method 4: Greedy Approach

A greedy approach always picks the largest composite number as a summand until no suitable summand can be found. It is not guaranteed to find the maximum number of summands, but is often faster and simpler than other methods.

Here’s an example:

def find_max_composite_summands_greedy(number): summands = 0 i = number while i > 3: if is_composite(i): summands += number // i number %= i i -= 1 return summands print(find_max_composite_summands_greedy(10))

Output: `2`

This code snippet adopts a greedy algorithm by continuously trying to subtract the largest possible composite summand. The `find_max_composite_summands_greedy()`

function decreases the target number by the composite summand until it can no longer find a suitable one, while incrementing the summand counter.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Integrating Built-In Functions

Leveraging Python’s built-in functions can sometimes provide a succinct one-liner solution, although it may be less efficient for large inputs.

Here’s an example:

max_summands_one_liner = lambda n: max(sum(map(is_composite, range(4, n+1))), 0) print(max_summands_one_liner(10))

Output: `2`

This one-liner solution uses a lambda function alongside `map`

and `sum`

to count the number of composite numbers up to `n`

. However, it does not precisely solve our original problem as it does not ensure the sum of composites equals `n`

, serving more as a related demonstration of Python’s functional capabilities.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Iterative Approach**– Simple to understand and implement. May become slow for large numbers due to its iterative nature.**Method 2: Dynamic Programming**– Increased efficiency for large numbers through storing intermediate results. Complexity may be overkill for smaller numbers.**Method 3: Memoization with Recursion**– Makes the code cleaner and conceptually simpler. Can cause a stack overflow for very large inputs due to deep recursion.**Method 4: Greedy Approach**– Fast and easy to understand. It is not guaranteed to find the optimal solution but works well in many practical cases.**Bonus Method 5: Integrating Built-In Functions**– Demonstrates Python’s succinct expressions. Least suitable for our specific problem as it does not account for the sum being exactly`n`

.