# 5 Best Ways to Find the Maximum Possible Population of Cities in Python

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π‘ Problem Formulation: Imagine you are given data representing the populations of various cities, and you are tasked with finding the city with the highest population. Your goal is to write a Python program that successfully identifies the maximum population from a list of city populations. For example, given the input `[124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]`, the desired output is `235456`, indicating the highest population.

## Method 1: The `max()` Function

The `max()` function is Python’s built-in method designed to return the maximum value from an iterable or two or more arguments. This straightforward approach handles any numeric data type and can be applied to our list of city populations with ease.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.
```from functools import reduce

populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = reduce(lambda a, b: a if a > b else b, populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

Here, the `reduce()` function is used with a lambda to calculate the maximum value. Itβs a more advanced method that can perform a wide range of operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

Although not a typical approach for finding the max value, a list comprehension can be creatively used along with the `all()` function to find the maximum value in a list.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.
```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = 0
for population in populations:
if population > max_population:
max_population = population
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

In the snippet, we start with a `max_population` of 0 and iterate over the list, updating `max_population` if a higher value is found. This is a manual way to find the maximum but gives you full control over the iteration.

## Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function

The `reduce()` function from the `functools` module applies a specified function cumulatively to the items of a sequence. This can be used to compare each element to the next and carry forward the max value.

Here’s an example:

```from functools import reduce

populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = reduce(lambda a, b: a if a > b else b, populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

Here, the `reduce()` function is used with a lambda to calculate the maximum value. Itβs a more advanced method that can perform a wide range of operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

Although not a typical approach for finding the max value, a list comprehension can be creatively used along with the `all()` function to find the maximum value in a list.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.
```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
populations.sort()
max_population = populations[-1]
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

This code sorts the list in place and then selects the last element, which is the maximum value after the sort. This method is easy to understand but less efficient than using `max()`.

## Method 3: Using a Loop

A loop can be used to iterate through each city’s population, keeping track of the highest number seen so far. This method provides control over the iteration process and may be useful in more complex scenarios.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = 0
for population in populations:
if population > max_population:
max_population = population
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

In the snippet, we start with a `max_population` of 0 and iterate over the list, updating `max_population` if a higher value is found. This is a manual way to find the maximum but gives you full control over the iteration.

## Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function

The `reduce()` function from the `functools` module applies a specified function cumulatively to the items of a sequence. This can be used to compare each element to the next and carry forward the max value.

Here’s an example:

```from functools import reduce

populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = reduce(lambda a, b: a if a > b else b, populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

Here, the `reduce()` function is used with a lambda to calculate the maximum value. Itβs a more advanced method that can perform a wide range of operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

Although not a typical approach for finding the max value, a list comprehension can be creatively used along with the `all()` function to find the maximum value in a list.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.
```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = max(populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

This snippet saves the maximum value of our city populations list to the variable `max_population` and prints it. Simple and efficient, the `max()` function is often the go-to choice for this kind of task.

## Method 2: Sorting the List

Sorting the list of populations and selecting the last element can give us the maximum value. This is more computationally expensive than Method 1, but it’s a common approach that can be helpful if you need the data ordered.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
populations.sort()
max_population = populations[-1]
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

This code sorts the list in place and then selects the last element, which is the maximum value after the sort. This method is easy to understand but less efficient than using `max()`.

## Method 3: Using a Loop

A loop can be used to iterate through each city’s population, keeping track of the highest number seen so far. This method provides control over the iteration process and may be useful in more complex scenarios.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = 0
for population in populations:
if population > max_population:
max_population = population
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

In the snippet, we start with a `max_population` of 0 and iterate over the list, updating `max_population` if a higher value is found. This is a manual way to find the maximum but gives you full control over the iteration.

## Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function

The `reduce()` function from the `functools` module applies a specified function cumulatively to the items of a sequence. This can be used to compare each element to the next and carry forward the max value.

Here’s an example:

```from functools import reduce

populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = reduce(lambda a, b: a if a > b else b, populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

Here, the `reduce()` function is used with a lambda to calculate the maximum value. Itβs a more advanced method that can perform a wide range of operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

Although not a typical approach for finding the max value, a list comprehension can be creatively used along with the `all()` function to find the maximum value in a list.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.
```from functools import reduce

populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = reduce(lambda a, b: a if a > b else b, populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

Here, the `reduce()` function is used with a lambda to calculate the maximum value. Itβs a more advanced method that can perform a wide range of operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

Although not a typical approach for finding the max value, a list comprehension can be creatively used along with the `all()` function to find the maximum value in a list.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.
```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = max(populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

This snippet saves the maximum value of our city populations list to the variable `max_population` and prints it. Simple and efficient, the `max()` function is often the go-to choice for this kind of task.

## Method 2: Sorting the List

Sorting the list of populations and selecting the last element can give us the maximum value. This is more computationally expensive than Method 1, but it’s a common approach that can be helpful if you need the data ordered.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
populations.sort()
max_population = populations[-1]
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

This code sorts the list in place and then selects the last element, which is the maximum value after the sort. This method is easy to understand but less efficient than using `max()`.

## Method 3: Using a Loop

A loop can be used to iterate through each city’s population, keeping track of the highest number seen so far. This method provides control over the iteration process and may be useful in more complex scenarios.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = 0
for population in populations:
if population > max_population:
max_population = population
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

In the snippet, we start with a `max_population` of 0 and iterate over the list, updating `max_population` if a higher value is found. This is a manual way to find the maximum but gives you full control over the iteration.

## Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function

The `reduce()` function from the `functools` module applies a specified function cumulatively to the items of a sequence. This can be used to compare each element to the next and carry forward the max value.

Here’s an example:

```from functools import reduce

populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = reduce(lambda a, b: a if a > b else b, populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

Here, the `reduce()` function is used with a lambda to calculate the maximum value. Itβs a more advanced method that can perform a wide range of operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

Although not a typical approach for finding the max value, a list comprehension can be creatively used along with the `all()` function to find the maximum value in a list.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.
```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = 0
for population in populations:
if population > max_population:
max_population = population
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

In the snippet, we start with a `max_population` of 0 and iterate over the list, updating `max_population` if a higher value is found. This is a manual way to find the maximum but gives you full control over the iteration.

## Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function

The `reduce()` function from the `functools` module applies a specified function cumulatively to the items of a sequence. This can be used to compare each element to the next and carry forward the max value.

Here’s an example:

```from functools import reduce

populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = reduce(lambda a, b: a if a > b else b, populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

Here, the `reduce()` function is used with a lambda to calculate the maximum value. Itβs a more advanced method that can perform a wide range of operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

Although not a typical approach for finding the max value, a list comprehension can be creatively used along with the `all()` function to find the maximum value in a list.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.
```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = max(populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

This snippet saves the maximum value of our city populations list to the variable `max_population` and prints it. Simple and efficient, the `max()` function is often the go-to choice for this kind of task.

## Method 2: Sorting the List

Sorting the list of populations and selecting the last element can give us the maximum value. This is more computationally expensive than Method 1, but it’s a common approach that can be helpful if you need the data ordered.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
populations.sort()
max_population = populations[-1]
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

This code sorts the list in place and then selects the last element, which is the maximum value after the sort. This method is easy to understand but less efficient than using `max()`.

## Method 3: Using a Loop

A loop can be used to iterate through each city’s population, keeping track of the highest number seen so far. This method provides control over the iteration process and may be useful in more complex scenarios.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = 0
for population in populations:
if population > max_population:
max_population = population
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

In the snippet, we start with a `max_population` of 0 and iterate over the list, updating `max_population` if a higher value is found. This is a manual way to find the maximum but gives you full control over the iteration.

## Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function

The `reduce()` function from the `functools` module applies a specified function cumulatively to the items of a sequence. This can be used to compare each element to the next and carry forward the max value.

Here’s an example:

```from functools import reduce

populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = reduce(lambda a, b: a if a > b else b, populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

Here, the `reduce()` function is used with a lambda to calculate the maximum value. Itβs a more advanced method that can perform a wide range of operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

Although not a typical approach for finding the max value, a list comprehension can be creatively used along with the `all()` function to find the maximum value in a list.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.
```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
populations.sort()
max_population = populations[-1]
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

This code sorts the list in place and then selects the last element, which is the maximum value after the sort. This method is easy to understand but less efficient than using `max()`.

## Method 3: Using a Loop

A loop can be used to iterate through each city’s population, keeping track of the highest number seen so far. This method provides control over the iteration process and may be useful in more complex scenarios.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = 0
for population in populations:
if population > max_population:
max_population = population
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

In the snippet, we start with a `max_population` of 0 and iterate over the list, updating `max_population` if a higher value is found. This is a manual way to find the maximum but gives you full control over the iteration.

## Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function

The `reduce()` function from the `functools` module applies a specified function cumulatively to the items of a sequence. This can be used to compare each element to the next and carry forward the max value.

Here’s an example:

```from functools import reduce

populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = reduce(lambda a, b: a if a > b else b, populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

Here, the `reduce()` function is used with a lambda to calculate the maximum value. Itβs a more advanced method that can perform a wide range of operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

Although not a typical approach for finding the max value, a list comprehension can be creatively used along with the `all()` function to find the maximum value in a list.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.
```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = max(populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

This snippet saves the maximum value of our city populations list to the variable `max_population` and prints it. Simple and efficient, the `max()` function is often the go-to choice for this kind of task.

## Method 2: Sorting the List

Sorting the list of populations and selecting the last element can give us the maximum value. This is more computationally expensive than Method 1, but it’s a common approach that can be helpful if you need the data ordered.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
populations.sort()
max_population = populations[-1]
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

This code sorts the list in place and then selects the last element, which is the maximum value after the sort. This method is easy to understand but less efficient than using `max()`.

## Method 3: Using a Loop

A loop can be used to iterate through each city’s population, keeping track of the highest number seen so far. This method provides control over the iteration process and may be useful in more complex scenarios.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = 0
for population in populations:
if population > max_population:
max_population = population
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

In the snippet, we start with a `max_population` of 0 and iterate over the list, updating `max_population` if a higher value is found. This is a manual way to find the maximum but gives you full control over the iteration.

## Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function

The `reduce()` function from the `functools` module applies a specified function cumulatively to the items of a sequence. This can be used to compare each element to the next and carry forward the max value.

Here’s an example:

```from functools import reduce

populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = reduce(lambda a, b: a if a > b else b, populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

Here, the `reduce()` function is used with a lambda to calculate the maximum value. Itβs a more advanced method that can perform a wide range of operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

Although not a typical approach for finding the max value, a list comprehension can be creatively used along with the `all()` function to find the maximum value in a list.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.
```from functools import reduce

populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = reduce(lambda a, b: a if a > b else b, populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

Here, the `reduce()` function is used with a lambda to calculate the maximum value. Itβs a more advanced method that can perform a wide range of operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

Although not a typical approach for finding the max value, a list comprehension can be creatively used along with the `all()` function to find the maximum value in a list.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.
```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
populations.sort()
max_population = populations[-1]
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

This code sorts the list in place and then selects the last element, which is the maximum value after the sort. This method is easy to understand but less efficient than using `max()`.

## Method 3: Using a Loop

A loop can be used to iterate through each city’s population, keeping track of the highest number seen so far. This method provides control over the iteration process and may be useful in more complex scenarios.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = 0
for population in populations:
if population > max_population:
max_population = population
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

In the snippet, we start with a `max_population` of 0 and iterate over the list, updating `max_population` if a higher value is found. This is a manual way to find the maximum but gives you full control over the iteration.

## Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function

The `reduce()` function from the `functools` module applies a specified function cumulatively to the items of a sequence. This can be used to compare each element to the next and carry forward the max value.

Here’s an example:

```from functools import reduce

populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = reduce(lambda a, b: a if a > b else b, populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

Here, the `reduce()` function is used with a lambda to calculate the maximum value. Itβs a more advanced method that can perform a wide range of operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

Although not a typical approach for finding the max value, a list comprehension can be creatively used along with the `all()` function to find the maximum value in a list.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.
```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = max(populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

This snippet saves the maximum value of our city populations list to the variable `max_population` and prints it. Simple and efficient, the `max()` function is often the go-to choice for this kind of task.

## Method 2: Sorting the List

Sorting the list of populations and selecting the last element can give us the maximum value. This is more computationally expensive than Method 1, but it’s a common approach that can be helpful if you need the data ordered.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
populations.sort()
max_population = populations[-1]
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

This code sorts the list in place and then selects the last element, which is the maximum value after the sort. This method is easy to understand but less efficient than using `max()`.

## Method 3: Using a Loop

A loop can be used to iterate through each city’s population, keeping track of the highest number seen so far. This method provides control over the iteration process and may be useful in more complex scenarios.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = 0
for population in populations:
if population > max_population:
max_population = population
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

In the snippet, we start with a `max_population` of 0 and iterate over the list, updating `max_population` if a higher value is found. This is a manual way to find the maximum but gives you full control over the iteration.

## Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function

The `reduce()` function from the `functools` module applies a specified function cumulatively to the items of a sequence. This can be used to compare each element to the next and carry forward the max value.

Here’s an example:

```from functools import reduce

populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = reduce(lambda a, b: a if a > b else b, populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

Here, the `reduce()` function is used with a lambda to calculate the maximum value. Itβs a more advanced method that can perform a wide range of operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

Although not a typical approach for finding the max value, a list comprehension can be creatively used along with the `all()` function to find the maximum value in a list.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.
```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = 0
for population in populations:
if population > max_population:
max_population = population
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

In the snippet, we start with a `max_population` of 0 and iterate over the list, updating `max_population` if a higher value is found. This is a manual way to find the maximum but gives you full control over the iteration.

## Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function

The `reduce()` function from the `functools` module applies a specified function cumulatively to the items of a sequence. This can be used to compare each element to the next and carry forward the max value.

Here’s an example:

```from functools import reduce

populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = reduce(lambda a, b: a if a > b else b, populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

Here, the `reduce()` function is used with a lambda to calculate the maximum value. Itβs a more advanced method that can perform a wide range of operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

Although not a typical approach for finding the max value, a list comprehension can be creatively used along with the `all()` function to find the maximum value in a list.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.
```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
populations.sort()
max_population = populations[-1]
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

This code sorts the list in place and then selects the last element, which is the maximum value after the sort. This method is easy to understand but less efficient than using `max()`.

## Method 3: Using a Loop

A loop can be used to iterate through each city’s population, keeping track of the highest number seen so far. This method provides control over the iteration process and may be useful in more complex scenarios.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = 0
for population in populations:
if population > max_population:
max_population = population
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

In the snippet, we start with a `max_population` of 0 and iterate over the list, updating `max_population` if a higher value is found. This is a manual way to find the maximum but gives you full control over the iteration.

## Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function

The `reduce()` function from the `functools` module applies a specified function cumulatively to the items of a sequence. This can be used to compare each element to the next and carry forward the max value.

Here’s an example:

```from functools import reduce

populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = reduce(lambda a, b: a if a > b else b, populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

Here, the `reduce()` function is used with a lambda to calculate the maximum value. Itβs a more advanced method that can perform a wide range of operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

Although not a typical approach for finding the max value, a list comprehension can be creatively used along with the `all()` function to find the maximum value in a list.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.
```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = max(populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

This snippet saves the maximum value of our city populations list to the variable `max_population` and prints it. Simple and efficient, the `max()` function is often the go-to choice for this kind of task.

## Method 2: Sorting the List

Sorting the list of populations and selecting the last element can give us the maximum value. This is more computationally expensive than Method 1, but it’s a common approach that can be helpful if you need the data ordered.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
populations.sort()
max_population = populations[-1]
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

This code sorts the list in place and then selects the last element, which is the maximum value after the sort. This method is easy to understand but less efficient than using `max()`.

## Method 3: Using a Loop

A loop can be used to iterate through each city’s population, keeping track of the highest number seen so far. This method provides control over the iteration process and may be useful in more complex scenarios.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = 0
for population in populations:
if population > max_population:
max_population = population
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

In the snippet, we start with a `max_population` of 0 and iterate over the list, updating `max_population` if a higher value is found. This is a manual way to find the maximum but gives you full control over the iteration.

## Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function

The `reduce()` function from the `functools` module applies a specified function cumulatively to the items of a sequence. This can be used to compare each element to the next and carry forward the max value.

Here’s an example:

```from functools import reduce

populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = reduce(lambda a, b: a if a > b else b, populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

Here, the `reduce()` function is used with a lambda to calculate the maximum value. Itβs a more advanced method that can perform a wide range of operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

Although not a typical approach for finding the max value, a list comprehension can be creatively used along with the `all()` function to find the maximum value in a list.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.
```from functools import reduce

populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = reduce(lambda a, b: a if a > b else b, populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

Here, the `reduce()` function is used with a lambda to calculate the maximum value. Itβs a more advanced method that can perform a wide range of operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

Although not a typical approach for finding the max value, a list comprehension can be creatively used along with the `all()` function to find the maximum value in a list.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.
```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = 0
for population in populations:
if population > max_population:
max_population = population
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

In the snippet, we start with a `max_population` of 0 and iterate over the list, updating `max_population` if a higher value is found. This is a manual way to find the maximum but gives you full control over the iteration.

## Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function

The `reduce()` function from the `functools` module applies a specified function cumulatively to the items of a sequence. This can be used to compare each element to the next and carry forward the max value.

Here’s an example:

```from functools import reduce

populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = reduce(lambda a, b: a if a > b else b, populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

Here, the `reduce()` function is used with a lambda to calculate the maximum value. Itβs a more advanced method that can perform a wide range of operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

Although not a typical approach for finding the max value, a list comprehension can be creatively used along with the `all()` function to find the maximum value in a list.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.
```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
populations.sort()
max_population = populations[-1]
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

This code sorts the list in place and then selects the last element, which is the maximum value after the sort. This method is easy to understand but less efficient than using `max()`.

## Method 3: Using a Loop

A loop can be used to iterate through each city’s population, keeping track of the highest number seen so far. This method provides control over the iteration process and may be useful in more complex scenarios.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = 0
for population in populations:
if population > max_population:
max_population = population
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

In the snippet, we start with a `max_population` of 0 and iterate over the list, updating `max_population` if a higher value is found. This is a manual way to find the maximum but gives you full control over the iteration.

## Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function

The `reduce()` function from the `functools` module applies a specified function cumulatively to the items of a sequence. This can be used to compare each element to the next and carry forward the max value.

Here’s an example:

```from functools import reduce

populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = reduce(lambda a, b: a if a > b else b, populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

Here, the `reduce()` function is used with a lambda to calculate the maximum value. Itβs a more advanced method that can perform a wide range of operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

Although not a typical approach for finding the max value, a list comprehension can be creatively used along with the `all()` function to find the maximum value in a list.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.
```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = max(populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

This snippet saves the maximum value of our city populations list to the variable `max_population` and prints it. Simple and efficient, the `max()` function is often the go-to choice for this kind of task.

## Method 2: Sorting the List

Sorting the list of populations and selecting the last element can give us the maximum value. This is more computationally expensive than Method 1, but it’s a common approach that can be helpful if you need the data ordered.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
populations.sort()
max_population = populations[-1]
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

This code sorts the list in place and then selects the last element, which is the maximum value after the sort. This method is easy to understand but less efficient than using `max()`.

## Method 3: Using a Loop

A loop can be used to iterate through each city’s population, keeping track of the highest number seen so far. This method provides control over the iteration process and may be useful in more complex scenarios.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = 0
for population in populations:
if population > max_population:
max_population = population
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

In the snippet, we start with a `max_population` of 0 and iterate over the list, updating `max_population` if a higher value is found. This is a manual way to find the maximum but gives you full control over the iteration.

## Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function

The `reduce()` function from the `functools` module applies a specified function cumulatively to the items of a sequence. This can be used to compare each element to the next and carry forward the max value.

Here’s an example:

```from functools import reduce

populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = reduce(lambda a, b: a if a > b else b, populations)
print(max_population)```

Output: `235456`

Here, the `reduce()` function is used with a lambda to calculate the maximum value. Itβs a more advanced method that can perform a wide range of operations but may be less readable for beginners.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension

Although not a typical approach for finding the max value, a list comprehension can be creatively used along with the `all()` function to find the maximum value in a list.

Here’s an example:

```populations = [124233, 235456, 93456, 145678]
max_population = [population for population in populations if all(population >= other for other in populations)]
print(max_population[0])```

Output: `235456`

This one-liner uses a list comprehension to keep any population that is not less than any other population. The result is a list containing only the max value, which is printed.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: The `max()` Function. Fastest and most idiomatic. Best for simple use cases.
• Method 2: Sorting the List. Intuitive but less efficient. Useful if you need the entire list sorted. Weakness: Doesn’t perform well with very large lists.
• Method 3: Using a Loop. Provides complete control over the iteration process. Can be adapted for complex scenarios. Weakness: More verbose and potentially slower than `max()`.
• Method 4: Using the `reduce()` Function. Flexible but requires understanding of functional programming concepts. Weakness: Less readable for those new to Python or functional programming.
• Bonus One-Liner Method 5: List Comprehension. Creative use of Python’s features. Not straightforward for the task at hand but showcases the flexibility of Python.