**π‘ Problem Formulation:** Pascal’s Triangle is a triangular array of binomial coefficients. For a given integer n, the problem is to find the nth row of Pascal’s Triangle. For example, if the input is n = 4, the desired output is the 4th row of the triangle: [1, 3, 3, 1].

## Method 1: Iterative Approach

This method involves creating Pascal’s Triangle row by row, starting with the topmost row. It iteratively calculates each subsequent row based on the previous row until it reaches the nth row, using the fact that each element is the sum of the two elements directly above it.

Here’s an example:

def pascal_triangle_row(n): row = [1] for _ in range(n): row = [x + y for x, y in zip([0]+row, row+[0])] return row print(pascal_triangle_row(4))

Output: [1, 4, 6, 4, 1]

This code snippet defines a Python function `pascal_triangle_row()`

that takes an integer n and returns the nth row of Pascal’s triangle. The function initializes a row as [1] and iteratively generates each row until the desired row is achieved. List comprehensions and the `zip()`

function are used to perform element-wise addition.

## Method 2: Using Binomial Coefficients

Pascal’s Triangle is intimately connected with binomial coefficients. This method takes advantage of the fact that the nth row elements correspond to the coefficients in the binomial expansion of (a+b)^(n-1). This can be calculated with the factorial function or the `math.comb()`

function available in Python 3.8 and later.

Here’s an example:

import math def pascal_triangle_row(n): return [math.comb(n-1, k) for k in range(n)] print(pascal_triangle_row(4))

Output: [1, 3, 3, 1]

The above snippet uses a list comprehension to generate the nth row of Pascal’s Triangle. The `math.comb()`

function is used to compute the binomial coefficients, which are equivalent to the elements in Pascal’s Triangle. This method is straightforward and leverages Python’s built-in functions for clear and concise code.

## Method 3: Recursive Solution

The recursive method calculates the nth row by building upon the (n-1)th row. The recursive function generates each row based on the values calculated before it, eventually accumulating the desired nth row.

Here’s an example:

def pascal_triangle_row(n, row=[1]): if n == 0: return row return pascal_triangle_row(n-1, [x + y for x, y in zip([0]+row, row+[0])]) print(pascal_triangle_row(4))

Output: [1, 4, 6, 4, 1]

`pascal_triangle_row()`

is a recursive function that takes the desired row number n and an optional starting row. If n is 0, indicating the top of the triangle, it returns the current row. For every other case, it calls itself with n-1 and the next row of the triangle. This exemplifies recursion but may not be efficient for large values of n due to the call stack limitations.

## Method 4: Dynamic Programming

Dynamic programming can also be used to efficiently calculate the nth row of Pascal’s Triangle. By storing intermediate results in an array, the method reduces redundant calculations. It is a bottom-up approach that builds the triangle up to the required row efficiently.

Here’s an example:

def pascal_triangle_row(n): triangle = [[1]*(i+1) for i in range(n)] for i in range(2, n): for j in range(1, i): triangle[i][j] = triangle[i-1][j-1] + triangle[i-1][j] return triangle[-1] print(pascal_triangle_row(4))

Output: [1, 3, 3, 1]

This method employs dynamic programming to construct a list of lists, each representing a row of the triangle. Each non-border element of the triangle is the sum of the two elements above it. Only the last row is returned, but the entire triangle is built, which may be inefficient in terms of space if only the nth row is required.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Lambda and Reduce

This one-liner is a functional programming approach that uses lambda functions and the reduce function from the functools module. It computes Pascal’s Triangle rows in a concise but slightly obfuscated way.

Here’s an example:

from functools import reduce pascal_triangle_row = lambda n: reduce(lambda row, _: [x + y for x, y in zip([0]+row, row+[0])], range(n), [1]) print(pascal_triangle_row(5))

Output: [1, 5, 10, 10, 5, 1]

This compact code snippet employs a lambda function to create the nth row of Pascal’s Triangle. It starts with a single-element row and repeatedly applies a reduction step that combines pairs of adjacent elements. This approach is elegant but might be less readable for those not familiar with functional programming paradigms.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1:** Iterative Approach. Simple to understand and implement. May not be the most efficient for large n.**Method 2:** Binomial Coefficients. Directly leverages the mathematical properties of Pascal’s Triangle. Very efficient but requires Python 3.8 or later.**Method 3:** Recursive Solution. Demonstrates recursion and is conceptually simple. Not practical for large n due to call stack size limits.**Method 4:** Dynamic Programming. Space-efficient and avoids redundant computations. Less space-effective if only nth row is required.**Method 5:** Lambda and Reduce. Elegant and concise single-line solution. Potentially difficult to understand for those new to functional programming.