# 5 Best Ways to Perform Addition of Tuples in Python

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π‘ Problem Formulation: In Python, a tuple is an immutable sequence of values that is often used to store heterogeneous data. However, despite their immutability, you might encounter scenarios where you need to perform an “addition” or concatenation of tuples to create a new tuple. For example, given two tuples `('a', 'b')` and `(1, 2)`, you want to obtain a new tuple `('a', 'b', 1, 2)`.

## Method 1: Using the Plus Operator

Python’s plus operator can be used to concatenate two tuples together. This method is straightforward: you simply use the `+` symbol to add two tuples, which returns a new tuple containing the elements of both input tuples.

Here’s an example:

```tuple1 = ('a', 'b')
tuple2 = (1, 2)
new_tuple = tuple1 + tuple2
print(new_tuple)```

Output:

`('a', 'b', 1, 2)`

This code snippet takes two tuples, `tuple1` and `tuple2`, and concatenates them using the plus operator. The result, `new_tuple`, is a new tuple that contains all elements from both tuples.

## Method 2: Using the Asterisk Operator for Repetition and Concatenation

While the asterisk operator is often used for repetition in Python, it can also be repurposed in tuple concatenation when combined with unpacking. This method allows you to create a new tuple with repeated elements from existing tuples.

Here’s an example:

```tuple1 = ('x',)
tuple2 = (1, 2)
new_tuple = tuple1 * 2 + tuple2
print(new_tuple)```

Output:

`('x', 'x', 1, 2)`

In this snippet, the single-element tuple `tuple1` is repeated twice using the asterisk operator, then concatenated with `tuple2`. `new_tuple` thus holds the result, repeating the ‘x’ and then including elements from the second tuple.

## Method 3: Tuple Unpacking with the Star Operator

The star operator in Python can unpack tuple elements. This feature is handy when you need to combine multiple tuples into a new tuple while also integrating additional elements.

Here’s an example:

```tuple1 = ('a', 'b')
tuple2 = (1, 2)
new_tuple = (*tuple1, *tuple2)
print(new_tuple)```

Output:

`('a', 'b', 1, 2)`

This technique uses the unpacking ability of the star operator to expand `tuple1` and `tuple2` into a new tuple `new_tuple`. This is essentially a more explicit form of concatenation and is especially useful in functions that can accept a variable number of arguments.

## Method 4: Using functools.reduce and Operator.concat

For a more functional programming approach, Python’s `functools.reduce` function can be used in tandem with `operator.concat` to concatenate a series of tuples. This method is ideal for adding more than two tuples.

Here’s an example:

```import functools
import operator

tuple_list = [('a',), ('b',), (1,), (2,)]
new_tuple = functools.reduce(operator.concat, tuple_list)
print(new_tuple)
```

Output:

`('a', 'b', 1, 2)`

The `reduce` function iteratively applies the `concat` operation from the `operator` module to the elements of the `tuple_list`, resulting in a single concatenated tuple `new_tuple`.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Chain with itertools.chain

The `itertools.chain` function can be used for “chaining” together several iterables into one continuous iterable. This iterable can then be converted into a tuple to obtain the same effect as addition.

Here’s an example:

```import itertools

tuple1 = ('a', 'b')
tuple2 = (1, 2)
new_tuple = tuple(itertools.chain(tuple1, tuple2))
print(new_tuple)
```

Output:

`('a', 'b', 1, 2)`

The `itertools.chain` function is called with two tuples as arguments. It creates a chain object that is then converted into a tuple to get `new_tuple`. This method is clean and semantically clear when dealing with multiple iterable concatenations.

## Summary/Discussion

• Method 1: Plus Operator. Simple and intuitive for adding tuples. Not suitable for adding more than two tuples at once without additional nesting.
• Method 2: Asterisk Operator for Repetition and Concatenation. Good for situations that require both the repetition of elements and concatenation. Can seem indirect for simple tuple addition.
• Method 3: Star Operator for Tuple Unpacking. Clean syntax, great for merging multiple tuples in one line. Requires Python 3.5+.
• Method 4: Using functools.reduce and Operator.concat. Functional programming style, good for lists of multiple tuples. Can be less readable for those not familiar with functional concepts.
• Method 5: Chain with itertools.chain. Allows for easy chaining of multiple iterables into a tuple. Very readable but requires importing a module.