**π‘ Problem Formulation:** This article tackles the challenge of printing rows from a matrix that exactly match a given length. Imagine a matrix (a list of lists in Python), where not all rows are the same length. The goal is to filter and print out only those rows that meet the specific length criterion provided. For example, given a matrix `[[1, 2], [3, 4, 5], [6, 7], [8, 9, 10, 11]]`

and a length `3`

, the desired output would be the row `[3, 4, 5]`

.

## Method 1: Iterating with a For Loop

This method involves using a traditional for loop to iterate through the matrix and print rows that match the desired length. The simplicity of this approach lends itself to easy understanding and quick implementation, ideal for beginners.

Here’s an example:

matrix = [[1, 2], [3, 4, 5], [6, 7], [8, 9, 10, 11]] row_length = 3 for row in matrix: if len(row) == row_length: print(row)

Output:

[3, 4, 5]

This code snippet creates a matrix and a variable for the required row length. It then loops over each row in the matrix, checks if the length of the row equals the specified length, and prints the row if it does.

## Method 2: Using List Comprehensions

List comprehensions provide a concise way to create lists based on existing lists. This method capitalizes on list comprehensions to filter out the rows of a certain length and print them in a single line of Python code.

Here’s an example:

matrix = [[1, 2], [3, 4, 5], [6, 7], [8, 9, 10, 11]] row_length = 3 [print(row) for row in matrix if len(row) == row_length]

Output:

[3, 4, 5]

The code uses list comprehension to iterate through each row of the matrix, checking the row’s length against the expected length and printing the row if the condition is met.

## Method 3: Using filter() Function

The `filter()`

function in Python can be used for constructing an iterator from those elements of an iterable (such as a list) which a function returns true. This method makes use of a lambda function to specify the filtering condition.

Here’s an example:

matrix = [[1, 2], [3, 4, 5], [6, 7], [8, 9, 10, 11]] row_length = 3 for row in filter(lambda x: len(x) == row_length, matrix): print(row)

Output:

[3, 4, 5]

Here, the `filter()`

function is used with a lambda that returns True if a row is of the desired length. The for loop then iterates over this filter object to print the qualifying rows.

## Method 4: Using NumPy Library

For those who work with matrices and numerical computing, NumPy is an indispensable Python library. This method utilizes NumPy’s powerful indexing to achieve our goal. Note: NumPy requires all rows to be of the same length, this method assumes that the matrix has been padded accordingly.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np matrix = np.array([[1, 2, 0], [3, 4, 5], [6, 7, 0], [8, 9, 10, 11]]) row_length = 3 [print(row) for row in matrix if np.count_nonzero(row) == row_length]

Output:

[3 4 5]

The example assumes the matrix has been padded with zeros to make all rows the same length. The list comprehension then iterates over the rows, using NumPy’s `count_nonzero`

to find rows that have the number of non-zero elements equal to the desired row length, and print those rows.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Using map() and filter()

Combining `map()`

and `filter()`

functions can provide a one-liner solution to our problem. While intellectually satisfying, this method can be less readable to those unfamiliar with functional programming concepts.

Here’s an example:

matrix = [[1, 2], [3, 4, 5], [6, 7], [8, 9, 10, 11]] row_length = 3 list(map(print, filter(lambda x: len(x) == row_length, matrix)))

Output:

[3, 4, 5]

The `filter()`

function is used to select rows of the desired length, and `map()`

with `print`

is used to output each of these rows. The list conversion is simply to force evaluation of the iterator created by `map()`

.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Iterating with a For Loop.**Easy to understand and implement. Best for beginners. Not the most concise or ‘Pythonic’ method.**Method 2: Using List Comprehensions.**Concise and ‘Pythonic’. Less explicit than a for loop which might impact readability for some users.**Method 3: Using filter() Function.**Clean functional approach. Requires knowledge of lambda expressions. May have performance benefits.**Method 4: Using NumPy Library.**Great for numerical computing. Requires consistent row lengths. Less straightforward for non-numerical applications.**Method 5: Using map() and filter().**One-liner and elegant. Can be obscure for developers not accustomed to functional programming paradigms.