**π‘ Problem Formulation:** Data manipulation is a common task in data analysis and Python’s pandas library makes it a breeze. Sometimes, you need to randomly select rows from a DataFrame based on odd indices. This might be needed for tasks such as sampling, bootstrapping or simply exploratory data analysis. The input is a DataFrame with an arbitrary number of rows, and the desired output is a subset of this DataFrame containing only odd-indexed rows selected at random. The task is not as straightforward as it seems because DataFrame indices may not always be integers or start from zero.

## Method 1: Using `pandas.DataFrame.iloc`

with List Comprehension

This method involves creating a list of odd indices by list comprehension and then using these indices with `pandas.DataFrame.iloc`

to slice the DataFrame. The function `iloc`

is integral to pandas for purely integer-location based indexing for selection by position.

Here’s an example:

import pandas as pd import random # Sample DataFrame df = pd.DataFrame({'A': range(1, 20, 2), 'B': range(2, 21, 2)}) # Generate random odd indices odd_indices = [i for i in range(len(df)) if i % 2] random.shuffle(odd_indices) # Shuffle to make it random selected_indices = odd_indices[:3] # Select 3 random odd indices # Select rows random_rows = df.iloc[selected_indices] print(random_rows)

Output:

A B 5 11 12 9 19 20 7 15 16

This snippet creates a DataFrame with even and odd numbers in separate columns. We generate odd indices based on the length of the DataFrame and then shuffle these to randomize the order. Using `pandas.DataFrame.iloc`

, we then select a specified number of these odd-indexed rows, extracting a random subset of the dataset.

## Method 2: Using Random Sample of DataFrame Index

Another method to select random odd-indexed rows is to directly sample from the index of the DataFrame, provided that the index is numeric. This method specifically applies when the DataFrame index reflects the actual position of the rows.

Here’s an example:

import pandas as pd import numpy as np # Sample DataFrame df = pd.DataFrame(np.random.randn(10, 2), columns=list('AB')) # Randomly select 3 odd indices odd_indices = df.index[df.index % 2 == 1].to_list() selected_odd_indices = np.random.choice(odd_indices, size=3, replace=False) # Select rows random_rows = df.loc[selected_odd_indices] print(random_rows)

Output:

A B 7 -0.730559 0.614446 3 1.994649 -1.309677 5 0.431306 1.607286

In this example, a DataFrame containing random float numbers is created. We use the DataFrame index to select indices that are odd. The `numpy.random.choice()`

function is then used to randomly choose a subset of these odd indices, ensuring we get a non-repetitive sample. The resulting indices are used to select rows from the DataFrame using `loc`

.

## Method 3: Using Boolean Mask

This method uses a Boolean mask to filter the rows of the DataFrame. A mask is generated with True values at odd indices. This mask is then applied to the DataFrame to get a selection of rows at odd indices, and from these, we sample randomly.

Here’s an example:

import pandas as pd # Sample DataFrame df = pd.DataFrame({'A': range(10), 'B': range(10, 20)}) # Create boolean mask for odd indices odd_mask = df.index % 2 == 1 # Apply mask and sample random_rows = df[odd_mask].sample(n=3) print(random_rows)

Output:

A B 7 7 17 3 3 13 1 1 11

The code constructs a sample DataFrame and applies a boolean mask to create a subset containing only rows with odd indices. Then we use the `sample()`

method to randomly pick a fixed number (3 in this case) of rows from this subset. The sample method is a convenient tool for random sampling directly from a DataFrame.

## Method 4: Using numpy’s `r_>...`

and `random.shuffle()`

Here we make use of Numpy’s `r_`

object, which is a simple way to build up arrays quickly. We generate indices with it, shuffle them to obtain randomness, and then select odd indices from the shuffled list.

Here’s an example:

import pandas as pd import numpy as np # Sample DataFrame df = pd.DataFrame({'A': range(1, 11), 'B': range(11, 21)}) # Generate and shuffle indices indices = np.arange(len(df)) np.random.shuffle(indices) # Select odd indices odd_indices = indices[indices % 2 == 1][:3] # Extract rows random_odd_rows = df.iloc[odd_indices] print(random_odd_rows)

Output:

A B 9 10 20 1 2 12 7 8 18

By utilizing the `np.r_`

object and `random.shuffle()`

, the code conveniently shuffles the array of DataFrame indices. After shuffling, the odd indices are selected and used to index into the DataFrame using `iloc`

. This produces a selection of odd-indexed rows in a random order.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Using `pandas.DataFrame.query()`

with Random Sample

The `query()`

method in pandas allows you to filter DataFrame rows with a boolean expression. Combined with `sample()`

, you can query odd-indexed rows and randomly select amongst them using a one-liner.

Here’s an example:

import pandas as pd # Sample DataFrame df = pd.DataFrame({'A': range(5), 'B': range(5, 10)}) # One-liner to select 2 random, odd-indexed rows random_rows = df.query("index % 2 == 1").sample(n=2) print(random_rows)

Output:

A B 1 1 6 3 3 8

This succinct snippet reveals the power of pandas’ expressive syntax. With `query()`

, we filter for odd-indexed rows and immediately follow this with a chained call to `sample()`

to randomly pick the desired number of rows, all in a single line of code.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1:**List comprehension with`iloc`

. Strengths: Explicit control over the index generation process. Weaknesses: May be less efficient for very large DataFrames due to explicit Python loops.**Method 2:**Sampling DataFrame Index Directly. Strengths: Clean and concise, leveraging pandas inherent indexing. Weaknesses: Assumes a numeric index starting from zero.**Method 3:**Boolean Mask. Strengths: Simple to understand and implement, utilizes pandas internal methods for random sampling. Weaknesses: Intermediate step required to create the boolean mask.**Method 4:**numpy’s`r_`

with`shuffle()`

. Strengths: Leverages numpy functionality for potential speed benefits. Weaknesses: Index shuffling may seem less intuitive for users not familiar with numpy.**Bonus Method 5:**One-Liner with`query()`

and`sample()`

. Strengths: Extremely concise and readable for someone familiar with pandas. Weaknesses: Might be less transparent for pandas beginners and not as customizable.