**💡 Problem Formulation:** In Python, there’s a need to determine if integer types of different sizes, such as those from the `numpy`

library, are considered subtypes of Python’s built-in `int`

class. Understanding the subtype relationships can aid developers in ensuring type compatibility and function correctness. For example, given a `numpy.int32`

value, we want to confirm whether it’s a subtype of the native `int`

class.

## Method 1: Using isinstance()

Python’s built-in function `isinstance()`

can be used to check if an object is an instance of a class or of a subclass thereof. It takes two arguments, the object and the class (or a tuple of classes) to be checked against. This method is straightforward and is the common way to perform runtime type checking.

Here’s an example:

False

This one-liner compares the type of a `numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

The code checks the base classes of `numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

An inline expression using the built-in `is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

This one-liner compares the type of a `numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

<class 'numpy.int32'>

Here, we use `type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

Every Python class has an attribute `__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

The code checks the base classes of `numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

An inline expression using the built-in `is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

This one-liner compares the type of a `numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

False

This snippet determines whether `numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

The `type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

Here, we use `type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

Every Python class has an attribute `__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

The code checks the base classes of `numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

An inline expression using the built-in `is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

False

The code snippet creates a NumPy integer of type `numpy.int32`

and checks whether it is an instance of the built-in `int`

class using `isinstance()`

. The output indicates that `numpy.int32`

is not considered a subtype of the built-in `int`

in Python.

## Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass()

The `issubclass()`

function checks if the first argument is a subclass of the second argument, which should be a class. This method differs from `isinstance()`

as it does not consider an instance of the class, but rather the class relationship directly. It’s a more static approach to type checking.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np is_subtype = issubclass(np.int32, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

This snippet determines whether `numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

The `type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

Here, we use `type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

Every Python class has an attribute `__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) is_subtype = isinstance(number, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

The code snippet creates a NumPy integer of type `numpy.int32`

and checks whether it is an instance of the built-in `int`

class using `isinstance()`

. The output indicates that `numpy.int32`

is not considered a subtype of the built-in `int`

in Python.

## Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass()

The `issubclass()`

function checks if the first argument is a subclass of the second argument, which should be a class. This method differs from `isinstance()`

as it does not consider an instance of the class, but rather the class relationship directly. It’s a more static approach to type checking.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np is_subtype = issubclass(np.int32, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

This snippet determines whether `numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

The `type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) is_subtype = isinstance(number, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

The code snippet creates a NumPy integer of type `numpy.int32`

and checks whether it is an instance of the built-in `int`

class using `isinstance()`

. The output indicates that `numpy.int32`

is not considered a subtype of the built-in `int`

in Python.

## Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass()

The `issubclass()`

function checks if the first argument is a subclass of the second argument, which should be a class. This method differs from `isinstance()`

as it does not consider an instance of the class, but rather the class relationship directly. It’s a more static approach to type checking.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np is_subtype = issubclass(np.int32, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) is_subtype = isinstance(number, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

and checks whether it is an instance of the built-in `int`

class using `isinstance()`

. The output indicates that `numpy.int32`

is not considered a subtype of the built-in `int`

in Python.

## Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass()

`issubclass()`

function checks if the first argument is a subclass of the second argument, which should be a class. This method differs from `isinstance()`

as it does not consider an instance of the class, but rather the class relationship directly. It’s a more static approach to type checking.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np is_subtype = issubclass(np.int32, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) is_subtype = isinstance(number, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

and checks whether it is an instance of the built-in `int`

class using `isinstance()`

. The output indicates that `numpy.int32`

is not considered a subtype of the built-in `int`

in Python.

## Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass()

`issubclass()`

function checks if the first argument is a subclass of the second argument, which should be a class. This method differs from `isinstance()`

as it does not consider an instance of the class, but rather the class relationship directly. It’s a more static approach to type checking.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np is_subtype = issubclass(np.int32, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

False

`numpy.int32`

and checks whether it is an instance of the built-in `int`

class using `isinstance()`

. The output indicates that `numpy.int32`

is not considered a subtype of the built-in `int`

in Python.

## Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass()

`issubclass()`

function checks if the first argument is a subclass of the second argument, which should be a class. This method differs from `isinstance()`

as it does not consider an instance of the class, but rather the class relationship directly. It’s a more static approach to type checking.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np is_subtype = issubclass(np.int32, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) is_subtype = isinstance(number, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

and checks whether it is an instance of the built-in `int`

class using `isinstance()`

. The output indicates that `numpy.int32`

is not considered a subtype of the built-in `int`

in Python.

## Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass()

`issubclass()`

function checks if the first argument is a subclass of the second argument, which should be a class. This method differs from `isinstance()`

as it does not consider an instance of the class, but rather the class relationship directly. It’s a more static approach to type checking.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np is_subtype = issubclass(np.int32, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

False

`numpy.int32`

and checks whether it is an instance of the built-in `int`

class using `isinstance()`

. The output indicates that `numpy.int32`

is not considered a subtype of the built-in `int`

in Python.

## Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass()

`issubclass()`

function checks if the first argument is a subclass of the second argument, which should be a class. This method differs from `isinstance()`

as it does not consider an instance of the class, but rather the class relationship directly. It’s a more static approach to type checking.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np is_subtype = issubclass(np.int32, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) is_subtype = isinstance(number, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

and checks whether it is an instance of the built-in `int`

class using `isinstance()`

. The output indicates that `numpy.int32`

is not considered a subtype of the built-in `int`

in Python.

## Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass()

`issubclass()`

function checks if the first argument is a subclass of the second argument, which should be a class. This method differs from `isinstance()`

as it does not consider an instance of the class, but rather the class relationship directly. It’s a more static approach to type checking.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np is_subtype = issubclass(np.int32, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

False

`numpy.int32`

and checks whether it is an instance of the built-in `int`

class using `isinstance()`

. The output indicates that `numpy.int32`

is not considered a subtype of the built-in `int`

in Python.

## Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass()

`issubclass()`

function checks if the first argument is a subclass of the second argument, which should be a class. This method differs from `isinstance()`

as it does not consider an instance of the class, but rather the class relationship directly. It’s a more static approach to type checking.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np is_subtype = issubclass(np.int32, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) is_subtype = isinstance(number, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

and checks whether it is an instance of the built-in `int`

class using `isinstance()`

. The output indicates that `numpy.int32`

is not considered a subtype of the built-in `int`

in Python.

## Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass()

`issubclass()`

function checks if the first argument is a subclass of the second argument, which should be a class. This method differs from `isinstance()`

as it does not consider an instance of the class, but rather the class relationship directly. It’s a more static approach to type checking.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np is_subtype = issubclass(np.int32, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

False

`numpy.int32`

and checks whether it is an instance of the built-in `int`

class using `isinstance()`

. The output indicates that `numpy.int32`

is not considered a subtype of the built-in `int`

in Python.

## Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass()

`issubclass()`

function checks if the first argument is a subclass of the second argument, which should be a class. This method differs from `isinstance()`

as it does not consider an instance of the class, but rather the class relationship directly. It’s a more static approach to type checking.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np is_subtype = issubclass(np.int32, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) is_subtype = isinstance(number, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

and checks whether it is an instance of the built-in `int`

class using `isinstance()`

. The output indicates that `numpy.int32`

is not considered a subtype of the built-in `int`

in Python.

## Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass()

`issubclass()`

function checks if the first argument is a subclass of the second argument, which should be a class. This method differs from `isinstance()`

as it does not consider an instance of the class, but rather the class relationship directly. It’s a more static approach to type checking.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np is_subtype = issubclass(np.int32, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

False

`numpy.int32`

and checks whether it is an instance of the built-in `int`

class using `isinstance()`

. The output indicates that `numpy.int32`

is not considered a subtype of the built-in `int`

in Python.

## Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass()

`issubclass()`

function checks if the first argument is a subclass of the second argument, which should be a class. This method differs from `isinstance()`

as it does not consider an instance of the class, but rather the class relationship directly. It’s a more static approach to type checking.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np is_subtype = issubclass(np.int32, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) is_subtype = isinstance(number, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

and checks whether it is an instance of the built-in `int`

class using `isinstance()`

. The output indicates that `numpy.int32`

is not considered a subtype of the built-in `int`

in Python.

## Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass()

`issubclass()`

function checks if the first argument is a subclass of the second argument, which should be a class. This method differs from `isinstance()`

as it does not consider an instance of the class, but rather the class relationship directly. It’s a more static approach to type checking.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np is_subtype = issubclass(np.int32, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

False

`numpy.int32`

and checks whether it is an instance of the built-in `int`

class using `isinstance()`

. The output indicates that `numpy.int32`

is not considered a subtype of the built-in `int`

in Python.

## Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass()

`issubclass()`

function checks if the first argument is a subclass of the second argument, which should be a class. This method differs from `isinstance()`

as it does not consider an instance of the class, but rather the class relationship directly. It’s a more static approach to type checking.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np is_subtype = issubclass(np.int32, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) is_subtype = isinstance(number, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

and checks whether it is an instance of the built-in `int`

class using `isinstance()`

. The output indicates that `numpy.int32`

is not considered a subtype of the built-in `int`

in Python.

## Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass()

`issubclass()`

function checks if the first argument is a subclass of the second argument, which should be a class. This method differs from `isinstance()`

as it does not consider an instance of the class, but rather the class relationship directly. It’s a more static approach to type checking.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np is_subtype = issubclass(np.int32, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

False

`numpy.int32`

and checks whether it is an instance of the built-in `int`

class using `isinstance()`

. The output indicates that `numpy.int32`

is not considered a subtype of the built-in `int`

in Python.

## Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass()

`issubclass()`

function checks if the first argument is a subclass of the second argument, which should be a class. This method differs from `isinstance()`

as it does not consider an instance of the class, but rather the class relationship directly. It’s a more static approach to type checking.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np is_subtype = issubclass(np.int32, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) is_subtype = isinstance(number, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

and checks whether it is an instance of the built-in `int`

class using `isinstance()`

. The output indicates that `numpy.int32`

is not considered a subtype of the built-in `int`

in Python.

## Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass()

`issubclass()`

function checks if the first argument is a subclass of the second argument, which should be a class. This method differs from `isinstance()`

as it does not consider an instance of the class, but rather the class relationship directly. It’s a more static approach to type checking.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np is_subtype = issubclass(np.int32, int) print(is_subtype)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

is a subclass of the built-in `int`

. As the output reveals, despite both being integer types, `numpy.int32`

is not a subclass of `int`

in Python’s type hierarchy.

## Method 3: Using type() Function

`type()`

function returns the type of the passed object. While this does not directly check for a subclass relationship, it can be used to understand the nature of custom integer types and see if they share the same base type as Python’s built-in `int`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) number_type = type(number) print(number_type)

Output:

<class 'numpy.int32'>

`type()`

to identify the exact class of the `np.int32`

object. The output displays that the type of the object is distinct from Python’s built-in `int`

type, which would return `<class 'int'>`

.

## Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute

`__bases__`

that contains a tuple of base classes. This can be used to examine whether a custom integer type inherits from the built-in `int`

class indirectly, hence checking the subtype relationship at a class level.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np bases = np.int32.__bases__ print(bases)

Output:

(<class 'numpy.signedinteger'>,)

`numpy.int32`

by accessing its `__bases__`

attribute. The result suggests that `numpy.int32`

extends `numpy.signedinteger`

, not the built-in `int`

, which confirms it is not a subtype of `int`

.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Inline Type Checking

`is`

operator can be used to compare types directly. Although a bit less formal than the previous methods, this approach can offer a quick check for type comparison in an interactive session.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np number = np.int32(5) print(type(number) is int)

Output:

False

`numpy.int32`

object directly with Python’s `int`

class using the `is`

operator. The output confirms that they are not of the same type.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using isinstance().**It provides a dynamic way to check object-instance relationships at runtime. Strengths include ease of use and clarity. Weaknesses could be a more significant performance impact when used excessively.**Method 2: Checking Compatibility with issubclass().**Directly assesses the subclass relationship. Strengths lie in its direct class relationship check. Weaknesses: not suitable for checking object instances.**Method 3: Using type() Function.**Simply returns the type of an object, which can be used to verify its class. Its strength is its simplicity and immediate return of the object’s type. A weakness is the lack of explicit subtype checking.**Method 4: Checking with __bases__ Attribute.**Offers insights into class inheritance. Its strength is in revealing the inheritance chain. Weakness: it can be less direct for subtype checking and does not work with object instances.**Bonus Method 5: Inline Type Checking.**This method is quick and easy for simple checks in an interactive environment. However, it lacks the robustness of the other methods and may be inappropriate for complex type hierarchies.