Pytest – A Complete Overview

Pytest is a popular test framework in Python. It helps to automate the test execution process and run unit tests as frequently as possible with minimal effort.  Everyone who has at least some experience with computer programming would intuitively know that testing is critical when building a software application. But beginners often find it difficult … Read more

[Fixed] Unknown label type: ‘continuous’ in sklearn LogisticRegression

Summary: Use SKLearn’s LogisticRegression Model for classification problems only. The Y variable is a category (e.g., binary [0,1]), not continuous (e.g. float numbers 3.4, 7.9). If the Y variable is non-categorical (i.e., continuous), the potential fixes are as follows. Re-examine the data. Try to encode the continuous Y variable into categories (e.g., use SKLearn’s LabelEncoder preprocessor). Re-examine … Read more

[Fixed] ImportError: No module named requests

Problem Formulation: How to fix ImportError: No module named requests in Python? You might be working on a web scraping project and want to import the requests library and check the status of the response. However, as soon as you try to execute your code, Python throws ImportError as shown below. Example: Output: ✨ The Requests Library Requests … Read more

[Solved] TypeError: A Bytes-Like object Is Required, not ‘str’

Introduction Objective: In this tutorial, our goal is to fix the following exception TypeError: A Bytes-Like object Is Required, not ‘str’ and also discuss similar exceptions along with their solutions. Example: Consider the following file ‘scores.txt’which contains scores of some random candidates. Now, let us try to access the score obtained by Ravi from the … Read more

IndentationError: Unindent Does Not Match Any Outer Indentation Level

Summary: The error IndentationError: unindent does not match any outer indentation level arises if you use inconsistent indentation of tabs or whitespaces for indented code blocks such as the if block and the for loop. For example, Python will throw an indentation error, if you use a for loop with four whitespace characters indentation for the first line, and one tab character indentation of the second line … Read more