# Math

## bootstrap_plot() – Pandas Plotting Module

A bootstrap plot is a graphical representation of uncertainty in a characteristic chosen from within a population. While we can usually calculate data confidence levels mathematically, gaining access to the desired characteristics from some populations is impossible or impracticable. In this case, bootstrap sampling and the bootstrap plot come to our aid. This article will …

## Plotting a Load-Duration Curve with Python

You can check out the code in this article in the interactive Jupyter notebook here (Google Colab). Introduction A popular query in Google is about load-duration curves. Some of the questions are: What is a load-duration curve? What is the importance of a load-duration curve? How do you calculate a load-duration curve? What is the …

## Python Print Octal Without ‘0o’

Problem Formulation If you print a hexadecimal number, Python uses the prefix ‘0o’ to indicate that it’s a number in the octal system and not in the decimal system like normal integers. However, if you already know that the output numbers are octal, you don’t necessarily need the ‘0o’ prefix. How to print oct numbers …

## Python Print Hex Without ‘0x’

Problem Formulation If you print a hexadecimal number, Python uses the prefix ‘0x’ to indicate that it’s a number in the hexadecimal system and not in the decimal system like normal integers. However, if you already know that the output numbers are hexadecimal, you don’t necessarily need the ‘0x’ prefix. How to print hex numbers …

## Python Print Float Without Decimal Points

Problem Formulation Given a floating point number x = 123.456. How to print the number without decimal remainder? Solution 1: int() Python’s built-in function int(x) converts any float number x to an integer by truncating it towards 0. For example, positive int(1.999) will be truncated to 1 and negative int(-1.999) to -1. To boost your …

## How to Sum the Digits of a Number in Python?

Problem Formulation Given an integer number. How to sum over all digits of this number to compute the crossfoot (cross total)? Consider the following examples: 12 –> 1+2 = 3 123 –> 1+2+3 = 3 244 –> 2+4+4 = 10 981223 –> 9+8+1+2+2+3 = 25 Method 1: sum() with Generator Expression The Python built-in sum(iterable) …

## How to Round a Number Up in Python?

To round a number up in Python, import the math library with import math, and call math.ceil(number). The function returns the ceiling of the specified number that is defined as the smallest integer greater than or equal to number The following code shows how to round the number 42.42 up to 43. If you don’t …

## How to Display a 1D and 2D Multiplication Table in Python?

Python Multiplication Table For Loop To calculate the multiplication table for a given number, iterate over all values i=0, 1, …, limit in a for loop and use the following statement as a loop body: print(number, ‘x’, i, ‘=’, number * i). This prints all equations, line by line, in the form i x j …

## Python Subtraction Operator

Python provides the subtraction operator – to subtract one object from another. The semantics of the subtraction depends on the operands’ data types. For example, subtracting two integers performs the arithmetic difference operation whereas subtracting two sets performs the set difference operation. The specific return value of the minus operator is defined in a data …

## Python Program to Add Two Numbers

Add Two Integers The most basic Python program to add two integer numbers stored in variables num_1 and num_2 is the expression num_1 + num_2 using the addition operator. The following code shows how to add two numbers 20 and 22 and print the result 42 to the shell: Add Two Integers with User Input …

## How to Divide Two Integers in Python 2 and 3?

In this article, you’ll learn about the division operators // and / in Python 2 and 3. You can check out the version in your Python script as shown here. A short visual overview of the division operator in Python 2 and 3: Assuming two integer values stored in variables a and b, there are …

## How to Get All Divisors of a Number in Python?

Problem Formulation Given an integer number n. Get all divisors c of the number n so that c * i = n for another integer i. The desired output format is a list of integers (divisors). Here are a couple of examples: n = 10 # Output: [1, 2, 5, 10] n = 13 # …