Normal Distribution and Shapiro-Wilk Test in Python

Normal distribution is a statistical prerequisite for parametric tests like Pearson’s correlation, t-tests, and regression. Testing for normal distribution can be done visually with sns.displot(x, kde=true). The Shapiro-Wilk test for normality can be done quickest with pingouin‘s pg.normality(x). 💡 Note: Several publications note that normal distribution is the least important prerequisite for parametric tests and … Read more

Pearson Correlation in Python

A good solution to calculate Pearson’s r and the p-value, to report the significance of the correlation, in Python is scipy.stats.pearsonr(x, y). A nice overview of the results delivers pingouin’s pg.corr(x, y).  What is Pearson’s “r” Measure? A statistical correlation with Pearson’s r measures the linear relationship between two numerical variables. The correlation coefficient r … Read more

How to Calculate z-scores in Python?

The z-scores can be used to compare data with different measurements and for normalization of data for machine learning algorithms and comparisons. 💡 Note: There are different methods to calculate the z-score. The quickest and easiest one is: scipy.stats.zscore(). What is the z-score? The z-score is used for normalization or standardization to make differently scaled … Read more

How to Install SciPy on PyCharm?

SciPy is an open-source Python library for math, science, and engineering. It includes the wildly popular NumPy and Matplotlib libraries. Problem Formulation: Given a PyCharm project. How to install the SciPy library in your project within a virtual environment or globally? Here’s a solution that always works: Open File > Settings > Project from the … Read more

Fitting Data With Scipy’s UnivariateSpline() and LSQUnivariateSpline()

This article explores the use of the functions .UnivariateSpline() and .LSQUnivariateSpline(), from the Scipy package. What Are Splines? Splines are mathematical functions that describe an ensemble of polynomials which are interconnected with each other in specific points called the knots of the spline. They’re used to interpolate a set of data points with a function … Read more

Scipy Interpolate 1D, 2D, and 3D

In this article we will explore how to perform interpolations in Python, using the Scipy library. Scipy provides a lot of useful functions which allows for mathematical processing and optimization of the data analysis. More specifically, speaking about interpolating data, it provides some useful functions for obtaining a rapid and accurate interpolation, starting from a … Read more