How I Created a Football Prediction App on Streamlit

This tutorial shows you how I created a model to predict football results using Poisson distribution. You’ll learn how I designed an interactive dashboard on Streamlit where our users can select a team and get to know the odds of a home win, draw, or away win. Here’s a live demo of using the app … Read more

The Ultimate Guide to Bivariate Analysis with Python

This article will review some of the critical techniques used in Exploratory Data Analysis, specifically for Bivariate Analysis. We will review some of the essential concepts, understand some of the math behind correlation coefficients and provide sufficient examples in Python for a well-rounded, comprehensive understanding. What is Bivariate Analysis? Exploratory Data Analysis, or EDA, is … Read more

Spearman Rank Correlation in Python

A prerequisite for a Pearson correlation is normal distribution and metrical data. If your data is not normally distributed or you have variables with ordinal data (like grades, or a Likert scale or a ranked variable from “low” to “high”) you can still calculate a correlation with the Spearman rank correlation. This can be done … Read more

Normal Distribution and Shapiro-Wilk Test in Python

Normal distribution is a statistical prerequisite for parametric tests like Pearson’s correlation, t-tests, and regression. Testing for normal distribution can be done visually with sns.displot(x, kde=true). The Shapiro-Wilk test for normality can be done quickest with pingouin‘s pg.normality(x). 💡 Note: Several publications note that normal distribution is the least important prerequisite for parametric tests and … Read more

Pearson Correlation in Python

A good solution to calculate Pearson’s r and the p-value, to report the significance of the correlation, in Python is scipy.stats.pearsonr(x, y). A nice overview of the results delivers pingouin’s pg.corr(x, y).  What is Pearson’s “r” Measure? A statistical correlation with Pearson’s r measures the linear relationship between two numerical variables. The correlation coefficient r … Read more

How to Calculate z-scores in Python?

The z-scores can be used to compare data with different measurements and for normalization of data for machine learning algorithms and comparisons. 💡 Note: There are different methods to calculate the z-score. The quickest and easiest one is: scipy.stats.zscore(). What is the z-score? The z-score is used for normalization or standardization to make differently scaled … Read more