**π‘ Problem Formulation:** When working with interval data in Python, it’s common to use the pandas’ IntervalArray to store and manipulate intervals. Sometimes, you may need to modify the closure of these intervals β that is, whether the endpoints are open or closed. This article delves into methods to alter an IntervalArray so that all its intervals become closed on the left side. Suppose you have an IntervalArray where the intervals are closed on either the right side or both sides, and you want to change all of them to be closed on the left side only.

## Method 1: Using the `set_closed()`

Method

The `set_closed()`

method is specifically designed to modify the closure of an interval. It returns a new IntervalArray with the specified closure while maintaining the intervals.

Here’s an example:

import pandas as pd intervals = pd.IntervalIndex.from_tuples([(1, 4), (5, 8)], closed='right') left_closed_intervals = intervals.set_closed('left') print(left_closed_intervals)

Output:

IntervalIndex([(1, 4), (5, 8)], dtype='interval[int64]', closed='left')

This code snippet creates an IntervalIndex with intervals closed on the right, and then uses `set_closed()`

to return an IntervalArray that’s identical but with intervals closed on the left.

## Method 2: Reconstructing IntervalArray with `pd.interval_range()`

You can reconstruct the intervals using `pd.interval_range()`

function, specifying the `closed`

parameter to ‘left’. This method affords more flexibility with respect to interval bounds.

Here’s an example:

start = [1, 5] end = [4, 8] left_closed_intervals = pd.IntervalIndex([pd.Interval(start[i], end[i], closed='left') for i in range(len(start))]) print(left_closed_intervals)

Output:

IntervalIndex([(1, 4), (5, 8)], dtype='interval[int64]', closed='left')

In this code, we create a list of intervals closed on the left by iterating over start and end points and then convert it to an IntervalIndex.

## Method 3: Modifying the `closed`

Attribute Directly

The `closed`

attribute indicates whether the intervals are closed on the left, right, neither or both. Though this attribute is read-only, we can use a workaround by creating a new IntervalArray with modified closure.

Here’s an example:

intervals = pd.IntervalIndex.from_tuples([(1, 4), (5, 8)], closed='right') left_closed_intervals = pd.IntervalIndex(intervals, closed='left') print(left_closed_intervals)

Output:

IntervalIndex([(1, 4), (5, 8)], dtype='interval[int64]', closed='left')

This snippet forcibly re-creates the IntervalIndex with the desired closure without altering the original data structureβs intervals.

## Method 4: Using List Comprehension with `Interval()`

Creating a new IntervalIndex with list comprehension is a more Pythonic way, where `Interval()`

objects can be instantiated with the `closed`

parameter set to ‘left’.

Here’s an example:

intervals = pd.IntervalIndex.from_tuples([(1, 4), (5, 8)], closed='right') left_closed_intervals = pd.IntervalIndex([pd.Interval(iv.left, iv.right, closed='left') for iv in intervals]) print(left_closed_intervals)

Output:

IntervalIndex([(1, 4), (5, 8)], dtype='interval[int64]', closed='left')

This code loops through each interval in the IntervalIndex, creating a new `Interval`

with the desired ‘left’ closure.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Using `map()`

Function

The `map()`

function can be applied to each interval to adjust their closure using a lambda function.

Here’s an example:

intervals = pd.IntervalIndex.from_tuples([(1, 4), (5, 8)], closed='right') left_closed_intervals = intervals.map(lambda iv: pd.Interval(iv.left, iv.right, closed='left')) print(left_closed_intervals)

Output:

IntervalIndex([(1, 4), (5, 8)], dtype='interval[int64]', closed='left')

This one-liner succinctly applies a transformation to the existing intervals, closing them on the left.

## Summary/Discussion

**Method 1: Using**Most straightforward and purpose-built. However, not present in older versions of pandas.`set_closed()`

:**Method 2: Reconstructing IntervalArray with**Flexible and explicit. Can be verbose and less efficient for large datasets.`pd.interval_range()`

:**Method 3: Modifying**Simple recreation but circumvents the fact that`closed`

Attribute Directly:`closed`

is nominally read-only. A direct approach that ensures data integrity.**Method 4: Using List Comprehension with**Pythonic and clear in intent. Slightly less efficient due to list creation.`Interval()`

:**Bonus Method 5: Using**One-liner and elegant. Potentially less readable to those unfamiliar with lambda functions.`map()`

Function: