The most Pythonic way to check if two ordered lists
l2 are identical, is to use the
l1 == l2 operator for element-wise comparison. If all elements are equal and the length of the lists are the same, the return value is
Problem: Given are two lists
l2. You want to perform Boolean Comparison: Compare the lists element-wise and return
True if your comparison metric returns
True for all pairs of elements, and otherwise
l1 = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] l2 = [1, 2, 3] # compare(l1, l2) --> False l1 = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] l2 = [1, 2, 3, 5, 4] # compare(l1, l2) --> False l1 = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] l2 = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] # compare(l1, l2) --> True
Let’s discuss the most Pythonic ways of solving this problem. Here’s a quick interactive code overview:
Exercise: Glance over all methods and run the code. What questions come to mind? Do you understand each method?
Read on to learn about each method in detail!
Method 1: Simple Comparison
Not always is the simplest method the best one. But for this particular problem, it is! The equality operator
== compares a list element-wise—many Python coders don’t know this!
# 1. Simple Comparison def method_1(l1, l2): return l1 == l2 l1 = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] l2 = [1, 2, 3] print(method_1(l1, l2)) # False
So, if you just want to learn about the most Pythonic way to solve this problem, look no further.
Method 2: Simple For Loop
The following method is what you’d see from a coder coming from another programming language or from a beginner who doesn’t know about the equality operator on lists (see Method 1).
# 2. Simple For Loop def method_2(l1, l2): for i in range(min(len(l1), len(l2))): if l1[i] != l2[i]: return False return len(l1) == len(l2) l1 = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] l2 = [1, 2, 3] print(method_2(l1, l2)) # False
In the code, you iterate over all indices from 0 to the last position of the smallest list as determined by the part
min(len(l1), len(l2)). You then check if both elements at the same position are different. If they are different, i.e.,
l1[i] != l2[i], you can immediately return
False because the lists are also different.
If you went through the whole loop without returning
False, the list elements are similar. But one list may still be longer! So, by returning
len(l1) == len(l2), you ensure to only return
True if (1) all elements are equal and (2) the lists have the same length.
A lot of code to accomplish such a simple thing! Let’s see how a better coder would leverage the
zip() function to reduce the complexity of the code.
Method 3: zip() + For Loop
The zip function takes a number of iterables and aggregates them to a single one by combining the i-th values of each iterable into a tuple for every i.
Let’s see how you can use the function to make the previous code more concise:
# 3. Zip + For Loop def method_3(l1, l2): for x, y in zip(l1, l2): if x != y: return False return len(l1) == len(l2) l1 = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] l2 = [1, 2, 3] print(method_3(l1, l2)) # False
Instead of iterating over indices, you now iterate over pairs of elements (the ones zipped together). If the lists have different sizes, the remaining elements from the longer list will be skipped. This way, element-wise comparison becomes simpler and no elaborate indexing schemes are required. Avoiding indices by means of the
zip() function is a more Pythonic way for sure!
Method 4: sum() + zip() + len()
- You first create an iterable of Boolean values using the generator expression
x == y for x, y in zip(l1, l2).
- Then, you sum up over the Boolean values (another trick of pro coders) to find the number of elements that are the same and store it in variable
- Finally, you compare this with the length of both lists. If all three values are the same, both lists have the same elements and their length is the same, too. They are equal!
# 4. Sum + Zip + Len def method_4(l1, l2): num_equal = sum(x == y for x, y in zip(l1, l2)) return num_equal == len(l1) == len(l2) l1 = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] l2 = [1, 2, 3] print(method_4(l1, l2)) # False print(method_4([1, 2], [1, 2])) # True
From the methods except the first one using the
== operator, this is the most Pythonic way due to the use of efficient Python helper functions like
zip(), len(), and sum() and generator expressions to make the code more concise and more readable.
You could also write this in a single line of code!
sum(x == y for x, y in zip(l1, l2)) == len(l1) == len(l2)
Method 5: map() + reduce() + len()
The last method is just to train your functional programming skills.
# 5. map() + reduce() + len() from functools import reduce def method_5(l1, l2): equal = map(lambda x, y: x == y, l1, l2) result = reduce(lambda x, y: x and y, equal) return result and len(l1) == len(l2) l1 = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] l2 = [1, 2, 3] print(method_5(l1, l2)) # False print(method_5([1, 2, 3], [1, 2, 3])) # True
map() function combines all pairs of elements to Boolean values (are the two elements equal?). The
reduce() function combines all Boolean values performing an
and operation. Sure, you can also use the more concise variant using the
Method 6: map() + all()
This is the same as the previous method—but using the
all() function instead of
reduce() to combine all Boolean values in a global and operation.
# 6. map() + all() def method_6(l1, l2): result = all(map(lambda x, y: x == y, l1, l2)) return result and len(l1) == len(l2) l1 = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] l2 = [1, 2, 3] print(method_5(l1, l2)) # False print(method_5([1, 2, 3], [1, 2, 3])) # True
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