Displaying Custom Business Hour End Times in 24h Format Using Python Pandas

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πŸ’‘ Problem Formulation: In data analysis with python pandas, you may need to represent business hours in a clear and consistent way. Specifically, when working with BusinessHour objects for custom business hours, you might want to extract the end time of these hours in a 24-hour format. This article will explore several ways to do so, providing a foundation to manipulate and display business hour offsets effectively. An example input could be a BusinessHour object representing the business hours of 9 AM to 5 PM, and the desired output would be the end time formatted as “17:00”.

Method 1: Using strftime with BusinessHour End Time

This method involves extracting the end time from a BusinessHour object and then formatting it into a 24-hour format using strftime. It is useful for quickly converting the endpoint of a business offset into a readable string.

Here’s an example:

from pandas.tseries.offsets import BusinessHour
import pandas as pd

# Create a BusinessHour object
bh = BusinessHour(start='09:00', end='17:00')

# Fetch the end time and format it
end_time_formatted = pd.Timestamp('today').normalize() + bh
end_time_str = end_time_formatted.strftime('%H:%M')

print(end_time_str)

Output:

17:00

This snippet creates a BusinessHour object that defines a typical business day starting at 9 AM and ending at 5 PM. The pd.Timestamp('today').normalize() method returns the current date with the time set to midnight, then we add the business hours to this timestamp to get the end time. We then format this datetime object to a string in 24-hour format using strftime('%H:%M').

Method 2: Utilizing Timedelta and BusinessHour Properties

By accessing the end property of the BusinessHour object, we can create a Timedelta and add it to today’s date normalized to midnight. This method is slightly more direct since it deals with the time properties of the object explicitly.

Here’s an example:

from pandas.tseries.offsets import BusinessHour
import pandas as pd

# Create a BusinessHour object
bh = BusinessHour(start='09:00', end='17:00')

# Calculate the end time using timedelta
end_time = (pd.Timestamp('today').normalize() + pd.Timedelta(hours=bh.end.hour, minutes=bh.end.minute)).time()
print(end_time)

Output:

17:00:00

In this code, we first initialize a BusinessHour object to represent our business hours. Then, we generate a Timedelta object that represents the duration of time from midnight to our end time. Adding it to the normalized current date gives us the exact time our business day ends, which we print in 24-hour format using the .time() method.

Method 3: Using rollforward Function

Another approach is to use the rollforward function provided by the BusinessHour object. This can be particularly helpful when dealing with multiple timestamps and needing to find their respective business hour end times.

Here’s an example:

from pandas.tseries.offsets import BusinessHour
import pandas as pd

# Create a BusinessHour object
bh = BusinessHour(start='09:00', end='17:00')

# Example datetime outside of business hours
example_time = pd.Timestamp('2023-01-01 18:00:00')

# Roll forward to the next business day end
end_of_business = bh.rollforward(example_time)
print(end_of_business.time())

Output:

17:00:00

The rollforward method is used on the BusinessHour object to move the given timestamp forward to the next business hour end time. In this example, we have a timestamp after business hours, and by using rollforward we get the end time of the next business day in a 24-hour format.

Method 4: Combining BusinessHour with Datetime Replace Function

This method is a bit more manual but equally as effective. It involves creating a new datetime object by replacing the time component with the end time of the BusinessHour offset.

Here’s an example:

from pandas.tseries.offsets import BusinessHour
import pandas as pd

# Create a BusinessHour object
bh = BusinessHour(start='09:00', end='17:00')

# Get current date and replace time with business hour end time
end_of_business_day = pd.Timestamp('today').normalize().replace(hour=bh.end.hour, minute=bh.end.minute)
print(end_of_business_day.strftime('%H:%M'))

Output:

17:00

This code block demonstrates how to create a new datetime instance representing the end of the business day. We start by normalizing today’s date to get a clean date without time, then use the replace method to set the time to our business hour’s end time. Finally, we format it as a string in 24-hour format.

Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Using BusinessHour’s End Property Directly

For those who love concise code, this one-liner takes advantage of the BusinessHour object’s end property to directly create a string representing the end time.

Here’s an example:

from pandas.tseries.offsets import BusinessHour

# Create a BusinessHour object
bh = BusinessHour(start='09:00', end='17:00')

# Get end time in one line
end_time_str = f"{bh.end.hour:02}:{bh.end.minute:02}"
print(end_time_str)

Output:

17:00

This succinct line creates a formatted string using Python’s f-string syntax with proper padding of zero for single-digit hours or minutes. It takes the hour and minute from the BusinessHour object’s end time and formats them to a 24-hour time string.

Summary/Discussion

  • Method 1: strftime with BusinessHour End Time. Simple and straightforward. May be less intuitive for handling non-standard business hours.
  • Method 2: Timedelta and BusinessHour Properties. Direct and clear in intention. Requires two steps of addition and time extraction.
  • Method 3: rollforward Function. Automatically accounts for non-business days and times. Could be overkill for simple use cases.
  • Method 4: Datetime Replace Function. Offers fine control over datetime object creation. Slightly verbose for simple tasks.
  • Method 5: BusinessHour’s End Property Directly. Extremely concise. Assumes familiarity with the BusinessHour object structure.