## A Quick Introduction To Tuples

Python consists of 4 built-in data types that are used to store collections of data. These data types are:

A tuple allows you to store multiple items within a single variable. Hence, it is a collection that is **ordered** and **unchangeable**/**immutable.** Also, tuples are **heterogeneous** as they allow you to store elements that are of different types.

**Syntax:**

my_tuple =(1, 2, 3, 'Python')

**Example:**

my_tuple = ("Python", "Java", 200) print(my_tuple) # OUTPUT : ('Python', 'Java', 200)

For more details on tuples in Python, please have a look at our** blog tutorial here**. The purpose of this article is to discuss how the comparison works between two tuples.

## Problem Formulation

Given two tuples; how does the comparison between the two tuples work?

**Example:**

(4, 5) < (3, 5) # Equals false

So, as depicted in the above example – how/why is the output false? Or How does Python compare these two tuples?

## ? Comparing Tuples – Python

**?** The **Rule of Thumb** for comparing Python Tuples:

Tuples in Python are compared lexicographically. This means that the corresponding elements of the given tuples are compared to each other.

Therefore, tuples in Python are compared on the basis of their position : the first item of the first tuple is compared to the first item of the second tuple. If they are not equal then the first comparison is enough to deduce the output. Otherwise the second items are considered, then the third and so on until all the corresponding elements of both the tuples have been compared.

Let us have a look at what the** Python documentation** talks about **Value Comparison** of built-in sequences like lists and tuples:

- For two collections to be “
**equal”**:- they must be of the
**same type**, (for example,`[10,20] == (10,20)`

isbecause the type is not the same).`false`

- they must
**have the same length**, and **each pair of corresponding elements**in the given sequences**must be equal**.

- they must be of the
- Tuples support order comparison and collections that support order comparison are ordered the same as their first unequal/differing elements.
- For example,
`[10,20,a] <= [10,20,z]`

is the same as`a <= z`

). In case a corresponding element doesn’t exist, then the shorter collection is ordered first and is considered smaller. (for example,`[10,20] < [10,20,0]`

is`true`

).

- For example,

**⚠️ Attention**

- You should not consider Tuples as vectors in an
*n-dimensional space*, compared according to their length. - In ordered comparisons,

and`<`

do not represent “`>`

” and “*smaller than*“; rather they represent “*greater than*” and “*is before*“. So in our example above (4, 5) is not before (3, 5). Hence, the output is*is after*`False`

.

Now let us have a look at few scenarios that will further clarify our concept.

## ➧Normal Comparisons

Let us have a look at the following snippet which compares two tuples in numerous scenarios:

# comparing integers print((10, 20) < (10, 25)) print((10, 20) == (10, 25)) print((10, 20) > (10, 25)) # comparing strings print(('x', 'y') < ('x', 'z')) # comparing list of tuples print(([4, 5], [5, 6]) == ([4, 5], [5, 6]))

**Output:**

True False False True True

*Explanation:-*

- While comparing
`(10,20)`

and`(10,25)`

it is observed that the first element in both the tuples are equal, hence the next elements are compared and it is evident that`20 < 25`

. This means that`(10,20) < (10,25)`

. - (‘x’, ‘y’) < (‘x’, ‘z’) is
`true`

because when you compare the ASCII values of the second element of the two tuples then you have the following output:`ord('y')< ord('z') # – > true`

- Similarly, in the third scenario, it is quite clear that when we compare the two tuples containing similar lists, the output is
`true`

.

## ➧Comparing Unequal Tuples

Consider that you have couple of tuples with different lengths. Let us have a look at how this comparison works in the following snippet:

tup1 = (10, 20, 30) tup2 = (10, 20, 30, 40) if tup1 > tup2: print(tup1, ">", tup2, "--> TRUE") else: print(tup1, '<', tup2, "--> TRUE")

**Output:**

(10, 20, 30) < (10, 20, 30, 40) – > TRUE

## ➧Comparing Tuples With Heterogeneous Items

While comparing two tuples that have heterogeneous items, that is, `==`

operator functions normally; however `<`

and `>`

operators do not work with heterogenous data-types.

**Example:**

print(('5',1,2)==(6,1,2)) # – -> False print(('5',1,2)>(6,1,2)) # – > TypeError: '>' not supported between instances of 'str' and 'int'

Therefore to evaluate greater than and less than operators for comparing heterogeneous items of two tuples, you have to use the `map()`

function to convert the values in both the tuples into a single type. You can read about the** map() function in this tutorial.**

**Example:**

tup1 = (10, 20, 30) tup2 = ('100', 20, 30) print(tuple(map(int, tup2)) > tup1)

**Output:**

True

## ? Bonus: Methods To Compare Two Tuples In Python

### ➧ Method 1 : Using all() and zip()

- Python’s built-in

function takes one iterable as an argument**all(x)**`x`

such as a list, tuple, or dictionary. It returns`True`

if all iterable elements evaluate to`True`

using implicit Boolean conversion, otherwise, it returns`False`

. If the iterable is empty,`all()`

returns`True`

because the condition is satisfied*for all elements*. - The
`zip()`

function takes an arbitrary number of iterables and aggregates them to a single iterable, a zip object. It combines the i-th values of each iterable argument into a tuple. Hence, if you pass two iterables, each tuple will contain two values. If you pass three iterables, each tuple will contain three values. For example, zip together lists`[1, 2, 3]`

and`[4, 5, 6]`

to`[(1,4), (2,5), (3,6)]`

.

**Example:**

tup1 = (10, 20, 40) tup2 = (5, 15, 25) if all(x > y for x, y in zip(tup1, tup2)): print("tup1 is greater!") else: print("tup2 is greater!")

**Output:**

tup1 is greater!

### ➧ Method 2 : Using all() And map() With A Lambda Function

tup1 = (10, 20, 40) tup2 = (5, 15, 25) if all(map(lambda x, y: x>y,tup1, tup2)): print("tup1 is greater!") else: print("tup2 is greater!")

**Output:**

tup1 is greater!

## Conclusion

I hope this article helped you to understand tuple comparisons in Python. Please **subscribe** and **stay tuned** for more interesting concepts and discussions.