Problem: You have a list of lists and you want to calculate the average of the different columns.
Example: Given the following list of lists with four rows and three columns.
data = [[0, 1, 0], [1, 1, 1], [0, 0, 0], [1, 1, 0]]
You want to have the average values of the three columns:
[average_col_1, average_col_2, average_col_3]
There are three methods that solve this problem. You can play with them in the interactive shell and read more details below:
Method 1: Average in Python (No Library)
data = [[0, 1, 0], [1, 1, 1], [0, 0, 0], [1, 1, 0]] # Method 1: Pure Python res = [sum(x) / len(x) for x in zip(*data)] print(res) # [0.5, 0.75, 0.25]
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You can visualize the code execution and memory objects of this code in the following tool (just click “Next” to see how one step of the code unfolds).
Method 2: Average with NumPy Library
data = [[0, 1, 0], [1, 1, 1], [0, 0, 0], [1, 1, 0]] # Method 2: NumPy import numpy as np a = np.array(data) res = np.average(a, axis=0) print(res) # [0.5 0.75 0.25]
axis argument of the average function defines along which axis you want to calculate the average value. If you want to average columns, define
axis=0. If you want to average rows, define
axis=1. If you want to average over all values, skip this argument.
Method 3: Mean Statistics Library + Map()
Just to show you another alternative, here’s one using the
map() function and our
zip(*data) trick to transpose the “matrix”
data = [[0, 1, 0], [1, 1, 1], [0, 0, 0], [1, 1, 0]] # Method 3: Statistics + Map() import statistics res = map(statistics.mean, zip(*data)) print(list(res)) # [0.5, 0.75, 0.25]
map(function, iterable) function applies
function to each element in
iterable. As an alternative, you can also use list comprehension as shown in method 1 in this tutorial. In fact, Guido van Rossum, the creator of Python and Python’s benevolent dictator for life (BDFL), prefers list comprehension over the
Where to Go From Here?
Enough theory, let’s get some practice!
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While working as a researcher in distributed systems, Dr. Christian Mayer found his love for teaching computer science students.
To help students reach higher levels of Python success, he founded the programming education website Finxter.com. He’s author of the popular programming book Python One-Liners (NoStarch 2020), coauthor of the Coffee Break Python series of self-published books, computer science enthusiast, freelancer, and owner of one of the top 10 largest Python blogs worldwide.
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