# How to Check if a Floating-Point Number is Even or Odd in Python

π‘ Problem Formulation: Determining the oddness or evenness of a floating-point number in Python can be a tricky task since these concepts traditionally apply only to integers. However, in this article, we explore methods to ascertain this characteristic by considering the floating-point number’s whole part or by sufficiently approximating to the nearest integer. For example, given the input `3.0`, a method should yield an output that identifies it as ‘even’ due to its integer part being an even number. Conversely, `3.1` may be treated differently based on method precision.

## Method 1: Using the Modulo Operator with Type Casting

This method involves casting the floating-point number to an integer and then using the modulo operator to check for evenness or oddness. If the result is zero, the number is even; otherwise, it is odd. This is most meaningful when the floating-point number is already representing an integer value.

Here’s an example:

```def is_even(floating_num):
return int(floating_num) % 2 == 0

print(is_even(7.0))  # Even because the integer part is 7, which is odd
print(is_even(8.2))  # Odd because the integer part is 8, which is even
```

The output:

```False
True
```

In this snippet, the `is_even()` function casts the given floating-point number to an integer and checks if the result is divisible by two without remainder. However, this method loses the fractional part and thus may not be suitable for all use cases.

## Method 2: Using the math Library

This method employs the `math.floor()` or `math.ceil()` function from Pythonβs math library to approximate the floating-point number to the nearest integer before using the modulo operator for evenness or oddness check.

Here’s an example:

```import math

def is_even(floating_num):
return math.floor(floating_num) % 2 == 0

print(is_even(8.7))  # Even because floor of 8.7 is 8, which is even
print(is_even(3.3))  # Odd because floor of 3.3 is 3, which is odd
```

The output:

```True
False
```

This code defines `is_even()` using `math.floor()`, but `math.ceil()` could work similarly. This approach is helpful when the goal is to consider a floating number even or odd based on the nearest whole number.

## Method 3: Using String Manipulation

The idea here is to convert the floating number to a string, split at the decimal point, and analyze the integer part. This way, the check is performed using string manipulation rather than arithmetic.

Here’s an example:

```def is_even(floating_num):
integer_part = str(floating_num).split('.')[0]
return int(integer_part) % 2 == 0

print(is_even(9.5))  # Odd because the integer part is 9, which is odd
print(is_even(10.1)) # Even because the integer part is 10, which is even
```

The output:

```False
True
```

The function `is_even()` first converts the floating-point number to a string and retrieves the integer part, which is then parsed back to an integer for the even-odd module operation. It’s a non-mathematical, straightforward approach, apt for simple cases.

## Method 4: Using the Fractional Part

In some applications, a number might be considered ‘even’ or ‘odd’ based on its entire value, including the fractional part. This method involves looking at the whole and fractional parts separately to draw a conclusion.

Here’s an example:

```def is_whole_even(floating_num):
return floating_num % 1 == 0 and floating_num % 2 == 0

print(is_whole_even(7.5))  # False, as it has a fractional part
print(is_whole_even(12.0)) # True, as it is effectively an even integer
```

The output:

```False
True
```

This code checks if the number is whole and then applies the modular check to determine evenness. Notably, `floating_num % 1` gives the fractional part of the number. This method can tell whole and fractional evenness apart, but it’s quite restrictive.

## Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Lambda Function

For those who adore one-liners and lambda functions, this method provides a concise way to assess the evenness of a floating-point’s integer part.

Here’s an example:

```is_even = lambda x: int(x) % 2 == 0

print(is_even(14.0))  # Even
print(is_even(2.9))   # Even
```

The output:

```True
True
```

The lambda function `is_even` created here resembles the first method, leveraging type casting and the modulo operator. Ideal for straightforward inline usage, though it shares the weaknesses of the first method.

## Summary/Discussion

Method 1: Using the Modulo Operator with Type Casting. Quick and direct for numbers representing integers. Loses the fractional part of the number. Method 2: Using the math Library. Handles rounding up or down to the nearest integer flexibly. Requires an additional library import and not suitable when precise fractional parts matter. Method 3: Using String Manipulation. Easy to understand and implement. Performance-wise inefficient and not traditionally mathematical. Method 4: Using the Fractional Part. Precise in identifying whole number evenness. Only relevant when defining evenness includes considering fractional parts. Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Lambda Function. Compact and fitting for quick inline checks. Shares the casting and loss of fractional detail with Method 1.