## Problem Formulation

Given a CSV file (e.g., stored in the file with name `'my_file.csv'`

).

INPUT: file 'my_file.csv'`9,8,7 6,5,4 3,2,1`

**Challenge**: How to convert it to a NumPy Array?

OUTPUT: 2D NumPy Array`[[9. 8. 7.] [6. 5. 4.] [3. 2. 1.]]`

## Method 1: np.loadtxt()

**np.loadtxt()**

You can convert a CSV file to a NumPy array simply by calling `np.loadtxt()`

with two arguments: the `filename`

and the `delimiter`

string. For example, the expression `np.loadtxt('my_file.csv', delimiter=',')`

returns a NumPy array from the `'my_file.csv'`

with delimiter symbols `','`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np array = np.loadtxt('my_file.csv', delimiter=',') print(array)

Output:

```
[[9. 8. 7.]
[6. 5. 4.]
[3. 2. 1.]]
```

## Method 2: np.loadtxt() with Header

**np.loadtxt() + header**

You can convert a CSV file with first-line header to a NumPy array by calling `np.loadtxt()`

with three arguments: the `filename`

, `skiprows=1`

to skip the first line (header), and the `delimiter`

string. For example, the expression `np.loadtxt('my_file.csv', skiprows=1, delimiter=',')`

returns a NumPy array from the `'my_file.csv'`

with delimiter symbols `','`

while skipping the first line.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np array = np.loadtxt('my_file.csv', skiprows=1, delimiter=',') print(array)

Output:

```
[[9. 8. 7.]
[6. 5. 4.]
[3. 2. 1.]]
```

## Method 3: CSV Reader

**CSV Reader**

To convert a CSV file `'my_file.csv'`

into a list of lists in Python, use the `csv.reader(file_obj)`

method to create a CSV file reader. Then convert the resulting object to a list using the `list()`

constructor. As a final step, you can convert the nested list to a NumPy array by using the `np.array(list)`

constructor.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np import csv csv_filename = 'my_file.csv' with open(csv_filename) as f: reader = csv.reader(f) lst = list(reader) print(lst)

The output is the list of lists:

`[['9', '8', '7'], ['6', '5', '4'], ['3', '2', '1']]`

Now, if you need to convert it to a NumPy array, you can simply use the `np.array()`

function on the newly-created list like so:

array = np.array(lst) print(array)

Output:

```
[['9' '8' '7']
['6' '5' '4']
['3' '2' '1']]
```

π **Related Tutorial**: How to Convert CSV to List of Lists in Python

## Method 4: np.genfromtxt()

**np.genfromtxt()**

You can convert a CSV file to a NumPy array simply by calling `np.genfromtxt()`

with two arguments: the `filename`

and the `delimiter`

string. For example, the expression `np.genfromtxt('my_file.csv', delimiter=',')`

returns a NumPy array from the `'my_file.csv'`

with delimiter symbol `','`

.

Here’s an example:

import numpy as np array = np.loadtxt('my_file.csv', delimiter=',') print(array)

Output:

```
[[9. 8. 7.]
[6. 5. 4.]
[3. 2. 1.]]
```

## Method 5: Pandas read_csv() and df.to_numpy()

**read_csv() and df.to_numpy()**

A quick and efficient way to read a CSV to a NumPy array is to combine Pandas’ `pd.read_csv()`

function to read a given CSV file to a DataFrame with the `df.to_numpy()`

function to convert the Pandas DataFrame to a NumPy array.

Here’s an example:

import pandas as pd df = pd.read_csv('my_file.csv', header=None) array = df.to_numpy() print(array)

Output:

```
[[9 8 7]
[6 5 4]
[3 2 1]]
```

π **Related Tutorial**: 17 Ways to Read a CSV File to a Pandas DataFrame

## Summary

We have seen five ways to convert a CSV file to a 2D NumPy array:

**Method 1**:`np.loadtxt()`

**Method 2**:`np.loadtxt()`

with Header**Method 3**: CSV Reader**Method 4**:`np.genfromtxt()`

**Method 5**: Pandas`read_csv()`

and`df.to_numpy()`

Our preferred way is `np.loadtxt()`

for its simplicity and Pandas for its extensibility.

## More Python CSV Conversions

π **Learn More**: I have compiled an “ultimate guide” on the Finxter blog that shows you the best method, respectively, to convert a CSV file to JSON, Excel, dictionary, Parquet, list, list of lists, list of tuples, text file, DataFrame, XML, NumPy array, and list of dictionaries.

While working as a researcher in distributed systems, Dr. Christian Mayer found his love for teaching computer science students.

To help students reach higher levels of Python success, he founded the programming education website Finxter.com that has taught exponential skills to millions of coders worldwide. He’s the author of the best-selling programming books Python One-Liners (NoStarch 2020), The Art of Clean Code (NoStarch 2022), and The Book of Dash (NoStarch 2022). Chris also coauthored the Coffee Break Python series of self-published books. He’s a computer science enthusiast, freelancer, and owner of one of the top 10 largest Python blogs worldwide.

His passions are writing, reading, and coding. But his greatest passion is to serve aspiring coders through Finxter and help them to boost their skills. You can join his free email academy here.