How to Convert an Image from RGB to Grayscale in Python

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Problem Formulation and Solution Overview

In this article, you’ll learn how to convert an image from RGB to Grayscale.

Aaron, an Icelandic Photographer, has a beautiful picture of their famous Elephant Rock. He needs to convert this picture from an RGB to Grayscale representation and has asked for your assistance.

💡Note: To follow along, right-click on the above image and save it as erock_rgb.jpg, then move to the current working directory.


💬 Question: How would we write Python code to convert an RGB image to a Grayscale representation?

We can accomplish this task by one of the following options:


Method 1: Use image.convert()

This method imports the PIL (pillow) library allowing access to the img.convert() function. This function converts an RGB image to a Grayscale representation.

from PIL import Image
img_rgb = Image.open('erock_rgb.jpg')
img_gray = img_rgb.convert('L')
img_gray.save('erock_gray.jpg')

Above, imports the PIL (pillow) library. Click here to install the pillow library, if required.

Next, the image saved earlier is opened (Image.open('erock_rgb.jpg')) and passed the image name as an argument. This returns an object img_rgb similar to below.

<PIL.JpegImagePlugin.JpegImageFile image mode=RGB size=1200x800 at 0x24B4A254550>

This object allows us access to and manipulation of this particular image. Using img_rgb.convert('L'), converts the RGB object to a Grayscale representation of the same. The results save as erock_gray.jpg.

A compact way to perform the same task is to append convert('L') to the end of the second line: reducing the code by one (1) full line.

from PIL import Image
img_rgb = Image.open('erock_rgb.jpg').convert('L')
img_rgb.save('erock_gray.jpg')

Method 2: Use imread()

This method imports the OpenCV library to call in and use various functions to convert an RGB image to a Grayscale representation.

import cv2
 
img_rgb = cv2.imread('erock_rgb.jpg')
img_gray = cv2.cvtColor(img_rgb, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY)
  
cv2.imshow('Original image',img_rgb)
cv2.imshow('Gray image', img_gray)
  
cv2.waitKey(0)
cv2.destroyAllWindows()

Above, imports the OpenCV library.

Next, erock_rgb.jpg is read in using cv2.imread('erock_rgb.jpg'). The results saves to img_rgb.

If img_rgb was sent to the terminal, the following would display as follows (snippet only):

[[[218 130 90]
[218 130 90]
[219 131 91]
…

Then, the following line converts the above image to Grayscale (cv2.cvtColor(img_rgb, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY)) and saves to img_gray.

If img_gray was sent to the terminal, the following would display (snippet only):

[[128 128 129 … 132 100 182]
[128 128 129 … 112 71 77]
[128 128 129 … 111 62 47]
…

💡Note: Notice the RGB color changes when img_rgb is output to the terminal compared to img_gray.

Finally, image.show() is called twice. Once to display the original RGB image (underneath), and once to display the Grayscale representation (top).

These images continue to display until a key is pressed. Once this occurs, the images disappear and are destroyed.

Python OpenCV Image Processing - Resize, Blend, Blur, Threshold, Convert

Method 3: Use NumPy

This method uses both the NumPy and Matplotlib libraries to read an RGB image, convert it to a Grayscale representation, plot, and display the image on a graph.

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import matplotlib.image as mpimg

def rgb2gray(rgb):
    return np.dot(rgb[...,:3], [0.299, 0.587, 0.144])

img_rgb = mpimg.imread('erock_rgb.jpg')
img_gray = rgb2gray(img_rgb)

plt.imshow(img_gray, cmap=plt.get_cmap('gray'))
plt.savefig('erock_gray.jpg')
plt.show()

Above, two (2) libraries and called in: NumPy to use the np.dot() function and Matplotlib to handle the other calls.

Next, a function is created accepting an object as an argument. This function, when called later converts the argument passed (img_rgb) into a Grayscale representation and returns the same.

If img_gray was sent to the terminal, the following would display (snippet only):

[[134.612 134.612 135.642 … 135.339 102.933 187.105]
[134.612 134.612 135.642 … 114.905 72.93 78.955]
[134.612 134.612 135.642 … 113.299 63.66 48.055]
…

Then, the Grayscale representation is plotted as a graph and output as shown below:

Matplotlib Line Plot - A Helpful Illustrated Guide

Method 4: Use Matplotlib and Sci-Kit-Learn

This method imports the Matplotlib and Scikit-Learn libraries to convert an RGB image to a Grayscale Representation. This code displays both the RGB and Grayscale images side-by-side on a graph.

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from skimage import io
from skimage import data
from skimage.color import rgb2gray
from skimage import data

rgb_img  = io.imread('erock_rgb.jpg')
gray_img  = rgb2gray(rgb_img)

fig, axes = plt.subplots(1, 2, figsize=(8, 4))
ax = axes.ravel()
ax[0].imshow(orig_img)

ax[0].set_title("Original image")
ax[1].imshow(gray_img, cmap=plt.cm.gray)
ax[1].set_title("Grayscale image")
fig.tight_layout()
plt.show()

The first five (5) lines import the required libraries and functions therein to successfully execute the code below.

Next, the erock_rgb.jpg file is read in and saved as an object to rgb_img. Then, this object is passed to rgb2gray(), converted and saved to gray_img as a Grayscale representation.

The remaining sections plot the two (2) images on a graph, adding a title to each image respectively and displaying them.

💡Note: Displaying the plot as tight means display compactly.


Summary

These methods of converting RGB to Grayscale should give you enough information to select the best one for your coding requirements.

Good Luck & Happy Coding!


Programming Humor – Python

“I wrote 20 short programs in Python yesterday. It was wonderful. Perl, I’m leaving you.”xkcd