To generate random samples from a power-law distribution in Python, use the `numpy`

library for numerical operations and `matplotlib`

for visualization.

- π±
**Computation**: Specifically, you can use the`numpy.random.power`

function, which draws samples from a power-law distribution with a specific exponent. - π
**Visualization**: After generating the samples, it’s beneficial to visualize them in a log-log space to observe the characteristic straight-line behavior of power-law distributions. This visualization helps in understanding the distribution’s properties and confirming its power-law nature.

Here’s a minimal code example to generate and visualize random samples from a power-law distribution:

import numpy as np import matplotlib.pyplot as plt # Parameters a = 5 # Shape parameter samples = 10000 # Number of samples # Generate random samples data = np.random.power(a, samples) # Visualization in log-log space counts, bins = np.histogram(data, bins=50) bins_center = (bins[:-1] + bins[1:]) / 2 plt.loglog(bins_center, counts, marker='o', linestyle='none') plt.xlabel('Value') plt.ylabel('Frequency') plt.title('Power-law distribution in log-log space') plt.show()

First, we import the necessary libraries: `numpy`

for generating the power-law distributed samples and `matplotlib.pyplot`

for plotting.

The `a`

parameter is the shape parameter of the power-law distribution, controlling the steepness of the distribution. The `samples`

variable defines how many random values we want to generate.

`np.random.power(a, samples)`

generates an array of samples drawn from a power-law distribution with the shape parameter `a`

.

To visualize the distribution in log-log space, we first compute the histogram of the data using `np.histogram`

, which returns the counts and the bin edges.

We calculate the center of each bin for plotting purposes (`bins_center`

) and then plot the histogram using `plt.loglog`

to create a log-log plot. This is crucial for visualizing power-law distributions as they appear as straight lines in log-log plots.

Finally, we label the axes and show the plot with `plt.show()`

.

## Creating Power Law Distribution Without Library Such As NumPy

To create samples from a power-law distribution without a library, we use the inverse transform sampling method, where we generate uniform random samples and apply the inverse of the distribution’s cumulative distribution function (CDF) to these samples. This approach mathematically transforms uniformly distributed random numbers into numbers that follow the desired power-law distribution, based on the power-law’s specific characteristics and parameters.

Here’s the code:

import random import matplotlib.pyplot as plt def generate_power_law_samples(alpha, size=1000, xmin=1): """Generate samples from a power-law distribution using the inverse transform sampling method.""" samples = [] for _ in range(size): u = random.random() # Uniform random sample from 0 to 1 x = xmin * (1 - u) ** (-1 / (alpha - 1)) samples.append(x) return samples def plot_rank_frequency(samples): """Plot samples in log-log space using rank-frequency.""" # Sort samples in descending order sorted_samples = sorted(samples, reverse=True) # Generate ranks ranks = range(1, len(sorted_samples) + 1) # Plotting plt.loglog(ranks, sorted_samples, marker='o', linestyle='none') plt.xlabel('Rank') plt.ylabel('Sample Value') plt.title('Power-law distribution rank-frequency plot in log-log space') plt.show() # Generate samples alpha = 2.5 # Shape parameter of the power-law distribution samples = generate_power_law_samples(alpha, 10000) # Plot rank-frequency in log-log space plot_rank_frequency(samples)

This code generates samples from a power-law distribution using the `generate_power_law_samples`

function, as before.

The `plot_rank_frequency`

function sorts the samples in descending order and then generates their ranks. In a rank-frequency plot, each point’s x-coordinate is its rank (i.e., its position in the sorted list), and its y-coordinate is the sample value itself.

We plot these points in a log-log space using `plt.loglog()`

. This type of plot is useful for observing the power-law behavior of the distribution, where a linear relationship in log-log space indicates a power-law distribution.

The plot’s x-axis represents the ranks of the samples, and the y-axis represents the sample values, both on logarithmic scales. This visualization technique is effective for highlighting the characteristics of power-law distributions.