## Problem Formulation and Solution Overview

**Background**: *NumPy is Python’s impressive array-based data structure library used to perform intense mathematical calculations popularized by the Machine Learning and Data Science community.*

Let’s start by creating and initializing a NumPy array.

## Preparation

Before moving forward, please ensure the NumPy library is installed on the computer. Click here if you require instructions.

Add the following code to the top of each script. This snippet will allow the code in this article to run error-free.

import numpy as np

After importing the NumPy library, we can reference this library by calling the shortcode (`np)`

shown above.

## Method 1: Use NumPy Array()

One way to initialize a NumPy array is to enter exact values in a `List`

format. Then pass this `List`

as an argument to `np.array()`

.

**Example: 1-Dimensional Array**

one_dim = np.array([1.008, 6.94, 22.990, 39.098, 85.468]) print(one_dim)

This example initializes a 1D NumPy array (

) by using weight values for the first five (5) elements in the Periodic Table. The results save to `np.array()`

`one_dim `

and are output to the terminal.

`[ 1.008 6.94 22.99 39.098 85.468]` |

**Example: 2-Dimensional Array** **or Higher**

two_dim = np.array([[1.008, 6.94, 22.990], [39.098, 85.468, 132.91]]) print(two_dim)

This example initializes a 2D NumPy array (

) by using weight values for the first six (6) elements in the Periodic Table.`np.array()`

` [[ 1.008 6.94 22.99 ]` |

For 2D NumPy arrays or higher, an error will occur if the dimensions do **not **contain an equal number of elements.

**Example: ** **Correct Dimension Issue**

This issue can be corrected by wrapping each dimension in a `List`

and assigning the `dtype`

to an object (`dtype=object`

).

dif_dim = np.array([list([1.008, 6.94, 22.99]), list([39.098, 85.468])], dtype=object) print(dif_dim)

` [list([1.008, 6.94, 22.99]) list([39.098, 85.468])]` |

## Method 2: Use NumPy Zeroes()

Another way to initialize a NumPy array is to call `np.zeros()`

. This creates a new array with a defined shape `(n,n)`

filled with zeroes.

zero_dims = np.zeros((3,2)) print(zero_dims)

Above, `np.zeros()`

is called and passed an array shape of three (3) columns and two (2) rows (`3,2`

) as an argument. The results save to

and are output to the terminal.`zero_dims`

` [[0. 0.]` |

π‘**Note:** The shape of the new array can be a single integer (2) or a `Tuple`

of integers (3,2).

## Method 3: Use NumPy ones()

Similar to Method 2, this initializes a NumPy array and calls `np.ones()`

. This creates a new array with a defined shape (n,n) filled with ones.

one_dims = np.ones((3,2)) print(one_dims)

Above,

is called and passed an array shape of three (3) columns and two (2) rows (`np.ones()`

`3,2`

) as an argument. The results save to

and are output to the terminal.`one_dims`

` [[1. 1.]` |

## Method 4: Use NumPy Full()

What if you want to assign the elements of a NumPy array a specific value? Then, `np.full()`

is a good option. You can enter a value and populate the array with the same.

fill_dims = np.full((2,4), 1.2) print(fill_dims)

Above,

is called and passed an array shape of two (2) columns and four (4) rows (`np.full()`

`2,4`

) as an argument. The results save to

and are output to the terminal.`fill_dims`

`[[1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2]` |

## Method 5: Use NumPy empty()

If you are unsure what values to use to initialize a NumPy array, call `np.empty()`

. This function is passed an array shape and returns random floats.

empty_dims = np.empty((2, 2)) print(empty_dims)

Above,

is called and passed a dimension shape of two (2) columns and two (2) rows (`np.empty()`

`2,2`

) as an argument. The results save to

and are output to the terminal.`empty_dims`

` [[6.23042070e-307 1.42417221e-306]` |

π‘**Note:** As you can see from the output, empty does not mean empty as it generates and returns random float values.

## Method 6: Use NumPy arange()

To populate a 1D NumPy array with uniformly spaced values, call `np.arange()`

. This function is passed an end position (n-1) and starts at zero (0).

range_dims = np.arange(5) print(range_dims)

Above,

is called and passed a stop position of five (5) as an argument. The results save to `np.empty()`

and are output to the terminal.`range_dims`

` [0 1 2 3 4]` |

## Bonus

For our bonus, one (1) column from a CSV file is read into a DataFrame. This column is then converted into a 1D NumPy array and output to the terminal.

To follow along, click here to download the Finxter CSV file and move it into the current working directory before moving forward.

import numpy as np import pandas as pd df = pd.read_csv('finxters.csv', usecols=['Solved']) df = df.to_numpy() print(df)

Above imports the `pandas `

library to allow access to DataFrames. Then the `finxters.csv`

file is opened, and one (1) column, `Solved`

, is accessed. The results save to `df`

.

Next the contents of `df`

are converted to a NumPy array using `df.to_numpy()`

. The results are output to the terminal.

**Snippet**

`[[1915]` |

π **Recommended Tutorial**: How to Convert Pandas DataFrame/Series to NumPy Array?

## Summary

## Programmer Humor

*β Question: Why do programmers always mix up Halloween and Christmas?β Answer: Because Oct 31 equals Dec 25.*

*(If you didn’t get this, read our articles on the oct() and int() Python built-in functions!)*

At university, I found my love of writing and coding. Both of which I was able to use in my career.

During the past 15 years, I have held a number of positions such as:

In-house Corporate Technical Writer for various software programs such as Navision and Microsoft CRM

Corporate Trainer (staff of 30+)

Programming Instructor

Implementation Specialist for Navision and Microsoft CRM

Senior PHP Coder