In the world of Python programming, proper indentation is crucial for ensuring that your code is readable and executed as intended.
IndentationError: unexpected indent is a common issue faced by Python developers, especially beginners.
This error indicates that there is an issue with the placement of spaces or tabs in the code, which affects how the interpreter processes it.
One leading cause of this error is a mixture of tabs and spaces in a single block of code.
In addition to mismatched spaces and tabs, another common scenario that triggers the
IndentationError: unexpected indent is the improper use of multi-line comments or strings. Ensuring that these lines align with the surrounding code will help prevent this error.
Understanding IndentationError: Unexpected Indent
In Python, proper indentation is crucial for defining the structure and flow of the code. An
IndentationError: unexpected indent occurs when there is an incorrect number of spaces or tabs in a line of code, making it difficult for the Python interpreter to understand the desired code block hierarchy.
Typically, code blocks are indented using either tabs or spaces, with the latter being the recommended approach. Using a combination of both can lead to confusion for the interpreter and result in an unexpected indent error.
To avoid this error, following Python’s indentation guidelines is essential.
👍 Rule of Thumb: use four spaces for each level of indentation. This aligns with the PEP 8 style guide, which helps maintain readability and consistency among Python developers. Additionally, most modern code editors, like Visual Studio Code or PyCharm, can automatically format your code according to these guidelines.
A common scenario where an
IndentationError: unexpected indent might occur is within conditional statements or loops. For example:
def example_function(): if some_condition: print("This is properly indented.") print("This line, however, is indented one extra level and will cause an error.")
In this example, the second
IndentationError. To fix the issue, you should align the indentation of all lines within the same code block:
def example_function(): if some_condition: print("This is properly indented.") print("Now this line is also correctly indented.")
👨💻 Recommended: Python PEP 8 Style Guide
Causes of IndentationError
Inconsistencies in Spaces and Tabs
One common cause of
IndentationError: unexpected indent errors in Python is the inconsistent use of spaces and tabs. Python relies on proper indentation and considers both spaces and tabs as valid for creating blocks of code.
However, mixing them can lead to misaligned code and cause indentation errors. Using either spaces or tabs throughout your file is generally recommended for better readability and to avoid issues.
Nested Code Blocks
Another reason for indentation errors is the incorrect nesting of code blocks.
In Python, blocks of code are created using indentation, and they must be properly aligned. A simple mistake, such as forgetting to indent a nested block or accidentally adding extra spaces or tabs, can result in an unexpected indent error.
Ensuring that all code blocks within functions, classes, loops, and if statements are consistently indented can help prevent these errors.
Incorrect Function and Class Definition
Improper definition of functions and classes can also lead to indentation errors.
In Python, function and class definitions should start with the
class keyword, followed by their respective names and a colon (
The following code block must be indented to indicate it is part of the function or class. If the indentation is not consistent within the function or class, an
IndentationError: unexpected indent may occur.
Let’s say you have the following Python code that has both indentation errors and incorrect function and class definitions:
class MyClass: def __init__(self, value): # Indentation error self.value = value # Indentation error def printValue() # Missing 'self' argument print(self.value) my_instance = MyClass(5) my_instance.printValue
This code will give you an
IndentationError because the
__init__ method and the
self.value = value line should be indented to be inside the class definition. Furthermore, the
printValue function needs the
self argument to be able to refer to the instance of the class it’s attached to. Lastly,
my_instance.printValue should be called with parentheses because it’s a method, not a property.
Here is the corrected version:
class MyClass: def __init__(self, value): self.value = value def printValue(self): print(self.value) my_instance = MyClass(5) my_instance.printValue() # Added parentheses
In the corrected version, each method within the class is indented properly, the
printValue method now correctly includes
self as an argument, and
my_instance.printValue() is correctly called as a method with parentheses.
Improper Loops and If Statements
Loops and if statements are other places where indentation errors can arise. In Python, loops (
while) and if statements require correct indentation to define the scope of the code block.
Any inconsistencies in whitespace, such as having an extra space or tab, can result in an unexpected indentation error. Furthermore, when using nested loops or if statements, it is essential to maintain consistent indentation across all levels to avoid errors.
Using IDEs and Editors
One of the easiest ways to fix the
IndentationError: unexpected indent in Python is by using an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) or a code editor that is designed for working with Python. These editors help in identifying and resolving indentation issues by highlighting irregularities and offering automatic formatting.
Maintaining Consistent Indentation
Python relies heavily on correct indentation to determine the structure of code blocks. To avoid
IndentationError, it is crucial to maintain consistent indentation throughout the code.
This means using the same number of spaces or tabs for each level of indentation. Mixing tabs and spaces can lead to unexpected indent errors. To resolve this, you can configure your IDE or editor to visualize tabs and spaces or convert one type to another automatically when needed.
Applying Python Guidelines
Following the Python guidelines for code formatting is essential in avoiding indentation issues. The PEP 8 style guide recommends using four spaces per indentation level.
By adhering to these guidelines, you can ensure code readability and significantly reduce the chances of encountering
To fix code with incorrect indentation, start by identifying the lines causing the error, then adjust the indentation level accordingly. For example, if you encounter an issue within an
if statement, ensure that the subblock is correctly indented by adding or removing spaces or tabs until the desired indentation level is reached. There should be a clear and consistent progression of indentation levels throughout your code.
Indentation in Other Programming Languages
In languages that use curly braces, the indentation of code within those braces is a stylistic choice made by the programmer to improve readability and maintainability of the code. It is not enforced by the language itself, which allows more flexibility but might also lead to cases where indentation is misleading or inconsistent.
IndentationError: unexpected indent is a common error message encountered by Python programmers. This error occurs when the interpreter encounters an inconsistent number of spaces or tabs before a line of code, leading to confusion in understanding the code structure.
To avoid this error, following proper indentation guidelines in Python is essential. One key principle is maintaining a consistent number of spaces or tabs for each indentation level. For instance, using four spaces per indentation level is a widely recommended practice.
When working with code structures such as while loops, if statements, or defining functions and variables, adhering to correct indentation becomes even more critical. Misaligned code blocks can lead to indention errors and affect the program’s execution.
To maintain consistency, it can be helpful to use a text editor or integrated development environment (IDE) that supports Python’s indentation rules. These tools can automatically indent code and visually indicate inconsistencies, helping you identify potential issues before running the code.
Moreover, when working with databases, it is crucial to ensure proper indentation when executing queries and parsing information. This will not only enhance code readability but also prevent errors when interacting with the database.
Frequently Asked Questions
How to resolve IndentationError in Python for loop?
To resolve an IndentationError in a Python for loop, you need to ensure that the code inside the loop is indented by a consistent number of spaces or a single tab. For example, you can use 4 spaces to indent the code block after the
for statement. Be careful not to mix spaces and tabs, as it can lead to unexpected results.
What causes an unexpected indent in Python?
Unexpected indent errors in Python occur when there is an inconsistent use of spaces or tabs in your code. Python uses indentation to determine the scope of code blocks such as loops, conditionals, and functions. Proper indentation ensures that your code is more readable and less prone to errors.
How to correct indentation issues in Pylance VSCode?
To correct indentation issues in Pylance (VSCode), you can set up your editor to replace tabs with a consistent number of spaces. In VSCode settings, you can set
"editor.insertSpaces": true and
"editor.tabSize": 4. Additionally, use the built-in formatter to automatically fix indentation issues by pressing
Shift+Alt+F or right-clicking and selecting “Format Document”.
What does ‘expected an indented block’ mean?
The error message “expected an indented block” in Python means that the interpreter expected to find an indented block of code after a colon (
:), typically indicating the beginning of a code block for loops, conditionals, or functions. To fix this error, add the correct indentation for the block of code in question.
How to identify and fix indentation errors in Python?
To identify and fix indentation errors in Python, follow these steps:
- Make sure that you use a consistent number of spaces (typically 4) or a single tab for each level of indentation.
- Do not mix spaces and tabs in your code, as it can lead to unexpected results.
- Use a code editor with automatic indentation and formatting support to help maintain consistent indentation throughout your code.
Can you catch IndentationError in Python code?
No, you cannot catch an
IndentationError in Python code directly because it is a syntax error. Python will raise an IndentationError when parsing your code, so the code will not run until the error is corrected. To prevent indentation errors, ensure that your code uses consistent spacing or tabbing, and consider using a code editor with syntax highlighting and automatic formatting capabilities.
👨💻 Recommended: PEP 8 Guidelines: Essential Tips for Clean Python Code
While working as a researcher in distributed systems, Dr. Christian Mayer found his love for teaching computer science students.
To help students reach higher levels of Python success, he founded the programming education website Finxter.com that has taught exponential skills to millions of coders worldwide. He’s the author of the best-selling programming books Python One-Liners (NoStarch 2020), The Art of Clean Code (NoStarch 2022), and The Book of Dash (NoStarch 2022). Chris also coauthored the Coffee Break Python series of self-published books. He’s a computer science enthusiast, freelancer, and owner of one of the top 10 largest Python blogs worldwide.
His passions are writing, reading, and coding. But his greatest passion is to serve aspiring coders through Finxter and help them to boost their skills. You can join his free email academy here.