Short answer: To flatten your list of list
lst, use the nested list comprehension
[x for l in lst for x in l] to iterate over all nested lists (
for l in lst) and over all their elements (
for x in l). Each element
x, you just place in the outer list, unchanged.
When browsing StackOverflow, I stumble upon this question from time to time: “How to Join a List of Lists?“. My first thought is that the asking person is referring to the join() function that converts an iterable (such as a list) to a string by concatenating its elements.
But nothing can be further from the truth! The question is usually about “flattening” the list: to transform a nested list of lists such as
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]] to a flat list
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. So, the real question is:
How to Flatten a List of Lists in Python?
Problem: Given a list of lists. How to flatten the list of lists by getting rid of the inner lists—and keeping their elements?
Example: You want to transform a given list into a flat list like here:
lst = [[2, 2], , [1, 2, 3, 4], [1, 2, 3]] # ... Flatten the list here ... print(lst) # [2, 2, 4, 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 3]
Solution: Use a nested list comprehension statement
[x for l in lst for x in l] to flatten the list.
lst = [[2, 2], , [1, 2, 3, 4], [1, 2, 3]] # ... Flatten the list here ... lst = [x for l in lst for x in l] print(lst) # [2, 2, 4, 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 3]
Explanation: In the nested list comprehension statement
[x for l in lst for x in l], you first iterate over all lists in the list of lists (
for l in lst). Then, you iterate over all elements in the current list (
for x in l). This element, you just place in the outer list, unchanged, by using it in the “expression” part of the list comprehension statement
[x for l in lst for x in l].
Try It Yourself: You can execute this code snippet yourself in our interactive Python shell. Just click “Run” and test the output of this code.
Exercise: How to flatten a three-dimensional list (= a list of lists of lists)? Try it in the shell!
Video: List Comprehension Python List of Lists
Watch the video to learn three ways how to apply list comprehension to a list of lists:
- to flatten a list of lists,
- to create a list of lists, and
- to iterate over a list of lists.
Well, if you really want to learn how to
join() a list in Python, visit this detailed tutorial on the Finxter blog.
Where to Go From Here?
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While working as a researcher in distributed systems, Dr. Christian Mayer found his love for teaching computer science students.
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