# Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD) – Python Binance API for Crypto Trading

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MACD is a trend-following momentum indicator used for trading. It consists of two lines:

1. The MACD line is calculated by taking the difference between short-term EMA and long-term EMA. Exponential Moving Average (EMA) assigns weights to all the values due to a given factor whereas the latest data point gets the maximum weight, and the oldest data point gets the minimum weight. The short-term EMA is usually chosen with a period of 12 units and the long-term EMA is chosen with a period of 26 units.
2. The signal line is calculated using the EMA of the MACD line.

## Introduction

Before we begin, I would like to make a small request

• If you don’t know the basics of `binance` and `python-binance` API.
• If you want to know how to set up the development environment, set up a `binance` account or `binance-testnet` account. Then, you should please go through the previous course (Creating Your First Simple Crypto-Trading Bot with Binance API)  where these are explained in detail.
• Please be aware of the following note:
```##################### Disclaimer!! ###################################
# The bots built here with python should be used only as a learning tool. If you choose
# to do real trading on Binance, then you have to build your own criteria
# and logic for trading. The author is not responsible for any losses
# incurred if you choose to use the code developed as part of the course on Binance.
####################################################################```

Another important point:

In the algorithms we discuss, there are multiple buy/sell points to buy/sell crypto. It is up to you as to how to want to write the logic for buying and selling, e.g. In the bots we develop, buying or selling a crypto asset happens at all the buy/sell points using a for loop for each buy and sell point.

There can be multiple ways to implement the buy/sell logic, some are mentioned below

1.  You can keep separate loops to buy and sell and keep looping until at least one buy and one sell occurs and then break.
2.  You can choose to buy/sell only for a particular buy/sell signal. i.e. if market price is <= or >= a particular value from the buy/sell list. In this case, no for loop is needed here.
3.  You can choose to buy/sell, by placing only limit orders and not market orders with the prices from the buy/sell list.

And so on….

Let’s Begin the journey

Now that we are clear on all these things we discussed we can start with our first trading algorithm – SMA. So see you soon in our first algorithm!!

PS: Follow the videos, along with the tutorial to get a better understanding of algorithms!

## MACD Basics

To understand MACD, firstly it is important to understand Exponential Moving Average (EMA). Mathematically EMA is calculated using

```EMA = [CV x Factor] + [EMAprev x (1 - Factor)]
where CV = current value of the asset
Factor = 2/(N+1), where can be the number of days or period```

EMA is also called EWM (Exponential Weighted Moving) average as it assigns weights to all the values due to Factor. In the case of EMA, the latest data point gets the maximum attention, and the oldest data point gets the least attention.

MACD consists of two lines MACD line and the signal line. MACD line is calculated by taking the difference between short-term EMA and long-term EMA. The short-term EMA is usually chosen with a span or period=12 and the long-term EMA is chosen with a span or period=26. The signal line is calculated using the EMA of the MACD line.

```MACD = shortEMA - longEMA
signal = EMA on MACD with a span or period = 9```

Wherever the MACD line crosses the signal line, results in buying or selling points.

If MACD cuts the signal line in the direction (see figure),

• top to the bottom -> selling point
• bottom to the top -> buying point

As the moving average here is converging or diverging from the signal line it is called Moving Average Convergence Divergence.

We are now clear with the basics of MACD, let’s start coding the bot. The bot will be designed in steps.

Step 1: Main Bot Skeloton

```import os
from binance.client import Client
import pprint
import pandas as pd     # needs pip install
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt   # needs pip install

if __name__ == "__main__":
# passkey (saved in bashrc for linux)
api_key = os.environ.get('BINANCE_TESTNET_KEY')
# secret (saved in bashrc for linux)

client = Client(api_key, api_secret, testnet=True)
print("Using Binance TestNet Server")

pprint.pprint(client.get_account())
# Change symbol here e.g. BTCUSDT, BNBBTC, ETHUSDT, NEOBTC
symbol = 'BNBUSDT'
main()
```

Import the necessary packages (`binance client`, `pandas`, NumPy, and Matplotlib). At the start retrieve the Binance testnet API key and password using `os.environ.get()`. Initialize the Binance client with key, password, and test`net=true` (We use only the testnet for the bot).

Any symbol can be used, here we use the ‘BNBUSDT ‘ and trigger `main()`.

Step 2: Data Preparation

```def get_data_frame():
# valid intervals - 1m, 3m, 5m, 15m, 30m, 1h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 8h, 12h, 1d, 3d, 1w, 1M
# request historical candle (or klines) data using timestamp from above, interval either every min, hr, day or month
# starttime = '30 minutes ago UTC' for last 30 mins time
# e.g. client.get_historical_klines(symbol='ETHUSDTUSDT', '1m', starttime)
# starttime = '1 Dec, 2017', '1 Jan, 2018'  for last month of 2017
# e.g. client.get_historical_klines(symbol='BTCUSDT', '1h', "1 Dec, 2017", "1 Jan, 2018")
starttime = '1 day ago UTC'
interval = '1m'
bars = client.get_historical_klines(symbol, interval, starttime)

for line in bars:        # Keep only first 5 columns, "date" "open" "high" "low" "close"
del line[5:]

df = pd.DataFrame(bars, columns=['date', 'open', 'high', 'low', 'close']) #  2 dimensional tabular data
return df

symbol_df = get_data_frame()

def main():
```

As a second step, define `main()``macd_trade_logic()` and `get_data_frame()`. We need historical data to start the MACD calculations. The function `get_data_frame()` uses the `python-binance` API `get_historical_klines()` to get the historical data for the given interval (1min) and start time (one day ago). Note that the interval and start time can be changed to any valid interval and start time (see comments or `python-binance` documentation for more details). Finally, use the pandas `DataFrame()` to generate the data frame for the first five columns (date, open, high, low, and close).

Calculate the short-term and long-term EMA for the close values, MACD, and signal line as we described above.

```def macd_trade_logic():
symbol_df = get_data_frame()
# calculate short and long EMA mostly using close values

# Calculate MACD and signal line
MACD = shortEMA - longEMA

symbol_df['MACD'] = MACD
symbol_df['signal'] = signal
```

The EMA is calculated using the `ewm` (exponentially weighted moving) and `mean()` function of the Pandas data frame. MACD is the difference between short-term and long-term EMA and the signal line is calculated with the EMA of the MACD line.

We also add two more columns,’ MACD’ and ‘signal’.

Step 4: Trigger Buy and Sell

Whenever the MACD > signal, it means the moving average (EMA in this case) is either converging or diverging from the signal. This can be considered as +1, else 0. A new column ‘Trigger’ can be formed using the NumPy function `where()`. The `np.where()` function can be thought of as an if-else condition used in Python.

Further, taking the difference of two adjacent values of the ‘Trigger’ column, we get the buy and sell positions. The positions can be used to get the exact buy and sell point. The position value can be +1 for buy and -1 for sell.

```    symbol_df['Trigger'] = np.where(symbol_df['MACD'] > symbol_df['signal'], 1, 0)
symbol_df['Position'] = symbol_df['Trigger'].diff()

symbol_df['Buy'] = np.where(symbol_df['Position'] == 1,symbol_df['close'], np.NaN )
symbol_df['Sell'] = np.where(symbol_df['Position'] == -1,symbol_df['close'], np.NaN )
```
• The ‘Buy’ column is updated to a close value of the crypto asset if the ‘Position’ is 1, otherwise to NaN (Not a number).
• The ‘Sell’ column is updated to a close value of the crypto asset if the ‘Position’ is 1, otherwise to NaN (Not a number).

Finally, we have the buy/sell signals as part of MACD.

Step 5: File Output

At this stage, it would be a good idea to see all the columns output to a text file. We can use the regular file open and write functions to write to a file.

```    with open('output.txt', 'w') as f:
f.write(symbol_df.to_string())```

When you run the application, you will see that the `output.txt` has a date, open, high, low, close, Trigger, Position, MACD, signal, Buy and Sell columns. You can observe that the date column is in Unix timestamp(ms) and not in a human-readable format. This can be changed to a human-readable format using the Pandas function `to_datetime()` function.

```  # To print in human-readable date and time (from timestamp)
symbol_df.set_index('date', inplace=True)
symbol_df.index = pd.to_datetime(symbol_df.index, unit='ms')

with open('output.txt', 'w') as f:
f.write(symbol_df.to_string())
```

Step 6: Plotting

We can now visually interpret all the important symbol-related information. This can be done by plotting the graph using matplotlib and making a call to `plot_gr`aph() from `macd_trade`_logic()

```def plot_graph(df):

df=df.astype(float)
df[['close', 'MACD','signal']].plot()
plt.xlabel('Date',fontsize=18)
plt.ylabel('Close price',fontsize=18)
x_axis = df.index

plt.scatter(df.index,df['Sell'], color='red',label='Sell',  marker='v', alpha = 1)  # red = sell

plt.show()
```

Call the above function from `macd_trade_logic()`.

`   plot_graph(symbol_df)     # can comment this line if not needed`

Lastly, trading i.e the actual buying or selling of the crypto must be implemented.

```def buy_or_sell(df, buy_sell_list):
current_price = client.get_symbol_ticker(symbol =symbol)
print(current_price['price']) # Output is in json format, only price needs to be accessed
if value == 1.0 : # signal to buy

elif value == -1.0: # signal to sell
if current_price['price'] > df['Sell'][index]:
print("sell sell sell....")
sell_order = client.order_market_sell(symbol=symbol, quantity=1)
print(sell_order)
else:
print("nothing to do...")
```

In the above `buy_or_sell()` a for loop is added to get the current price of the symbol using the `get_symbol_ticker()` API. The for loop iterates over the `buy_sell_list`. As the `buy_sell_list` has either a value of ‘+1.0 ‘ for buy and ‘-1.0’ for sell, place an order on Binance to buy or sell at the market price after comparing with the current price of the symbol.

In the `macd_trade_logic()`, the ‘Position’ column has +1 and -1. Form a list of this column as it is much easier to iterate over the list (this is optional as you can also iterate directly over the ‘Position’ column using the data frame (`df`) passed as an argument)

```    # get the column=Position as a list of items.

```

## Full Code

Here’s the full code of this bot for copy&paste:

```# Author: Yogesh K for finxter academy
# MACD - Moving average convergence divergence
import os
from binance.client import Client
import pprint
import pandas as pd     # needs pip install
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt   # needs pip install

def get_data_frame():
# valid intervals - 1m, 3m, 5m, 15m, 30m, 1h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 8h, 12h, 1d, 3d, 1w, 1M
# request historical candle (or klines) data using timestamp from above, interval either every min, hr, day or month
# starttime = '30 minutes ago UTC' for last 30 mins time
# e.g. client.get_historical_klines(symbol='ETHUSDTUSDT', '1m', starttime)
# starttime = '1 Dec, 2017', '1 Jan, 2018'  for last month of 2017
# e.g. client.get_historical_klines(symbol='BTCUSDT', '1h', "1 Dec, 2017", "1 Jan, 2018")
starttime = '1 day ago UTC'
interval = '1m'
bars = client.get_historical_klines(symbol, interval, starttime)

for line in bars:        # Keep only first 5 columns, "date" "open" "high" "low" "close"
del line[5:]

df = pd.DataFrame(bars, columns=['date', 'open', 'high', 'low', 'close']) #  2 dimensional tabular data
return df

def plot_graph(df):

df=df.astype(float)
df[['close', 'MACD','signal']].plot()
plt.xlabel('Date',fontsize=18)
plt.ylabel('Close price',fontsize=18)
x_axis = df.index

plt.scatter(df.index,df['Sell'], color='red',label='Sell',  marker='v', alpha = 1)  # red = sell

plt.show()

current_price = client.get_symbol_ticker(symbol =symbol)
print(current_price['price']) # Output is in json format, only price needs to be accessed
if value == 1.0 : # signal to buy (either compare with current price to buy/sell or use limit order with close price)

elif value == -1.0: # signal to sell
if current_price['price'] > df['Sell'][index]:
print("sell sell sell....")
sell_order = client.order_market_sell(symbol=symbol, quantity=1)
print(sell_order)
else:
print("nothing to do...")

symbol_df = get_data_frame()

# calculate short and long EMA mostly using close values

# Calculate MACD and signal line
MACD = shortEMA - longEMA

symbol_df['MACD'] = MACD
symbol_df['signal'] = signal

# To print in human readable date and time (from timestamp)
symbol_df.set_index('date', inplace=True)
symbol_df.index = pd.to_datetime(symbol_df.index, unit='ms') # index set to first column = date_and_time

symbol_df['Trigger'] = np.where(symbol_df['MACD'] > symbol_df['signal'], 1, 0)
symbol_df['Position'] = symbol_df['Trigger'].diff()

symbol_df['Buy'] = np.where(symbol_df['Position'] == 1,symbol_df['close'], np.NaN )
symbol_df['Sell'] = np.where(symbol_df['Position'] == -1,symbol_df['close'], np.NaN )

with open('output.txt', 'w') as f:
f.write(
symbol_df.to_string()
)

# plot_graph(symbol_df)

# get the column=Position as a list of items.

def main():

if __name__ == "__main__":

api_key = os.environ.get('BINANCE_TESTNET_KEY')     # passkey (saved in bashrc for linux)
api_secret = os.environ.get('BINANCE_TESTNET_PASSWORD')  # secret (saved in bashrc for linux)

client = Client(api_key, api_secret, testnet=True)
print("Using Binance TestNet Server")

pprint.pprint(client.get_account())

symbol = 'BNBUSDT'   # Change symbol here e.g. BTCUSDT, BNBBTC, ETHUSDT, NEOBTC
main()```

## Conclusions

In this post, we covered the basics of EMA (exponential moving average), the concept of MACD and signal line, and successfully designed a bot using the MACD strategy. Running the bot will loop over all the buy and sell points, placing a market buy or sell order, similar to what we did in SMA. You can always implement your own `buy_or_sell()` logic based on the needs or requirements for trading. You can also further enhance the bot by calculating the profit/loss for every buy/sell pair.

## Where to Go From Here

Cryptocurrency trading is a highly sought-after skill in the 21st century. Freelancers who excel in crypto trading are paid up to \$300 per hour. If you want to learn the ins and outs of trading, check out our full course on the Finxter Computer Science academy: 