NumPy @ Operator vs

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Both the @ operator and the dot function are pivotal for matrix multiplication. However, beginners and even some seasoned programmers might find themselves puzzled over which to use and when.

What are the @ Operator and dot Function?

NumPy, Python’s fundamental package for scientific computing, offers several ways to perform operations on arrays and matrices.

πŸ‘‰ Among these, the @ operator and the dot function stand out for matrix multiplication.

  • The @ Operator: Introduced in Python 3.5, the @ operator is specifically designed for matrix multiplication. It’s a syntactic sugar that makes code involving matrix operations more readable and concise.
  • The dot Function: The dot function in NumPy is used for dot products of vectors, multiplication of two matrices, and more.

When to Use Each?

Use @ for Matrix Multiplication: If you’re working solely with matrix multiplication, the @ operator is your go-to for its readability and simplicity. It’s perfect for operations where the intent is explicitly matrix multiplication, making your code easier to read and understand at a glance. ✨

Use dot for Flexibility: The dot function is more flexible. Beyond matrix multiplication, it can handle dot products of vectors and multiplication between a scalar and an array. If your operations aren’t limited to matrix multiplication or if you’re working with versions of Python older than 3.5, dot is the more appropriate choice.


Let’s dive into a fun example that clearly demonstrates the difference between the @ operator and the dot function in NumPy, using a scenario where we’re working with a small game development project. Imagine we have two matrices representing transformations applied to game characters: one for scaling their size and another for rotating them. We’ll see how both operators are used to apply these transformations.

First, ensure you have NumPy installed:

pip install numpy

Here’s the minimal code example:

import numpy as np

# Transformation matrices for our game characters
# Scaling matrix (to double the size)
scaling_matrix = np.array([[2, 0],
                           [0, 2]])

# Rotation matrix (90 degrees)
rotation_matrix = np.array([[0, -1],
                            [1,  0]])

# Position of our character in 2D space (x, y)
character_position = np.array([1, 0]).reshape(2, 1)  # Making it a column vector

# Using the @ operator for a clear, straightforward matrix multiplication
transformed_position_at = scaling_matrix @ rotation_matrix @ character_position

# Using the dot function for the same operation
transformed_position_dot =, rotation_matrix), character_position)

# Display the results
print("Transformed Position with @:", transformed_position_at.flatten())
print("Transformed Position with dot:", transformed_position_dot.flatten())

In this playful example, we first define matrices for scaling and rotation, applying them to a character’s position to move them around the game world. The character starts at position (1, 0), and we want to double their size and rotate them 90 degrees.

The @ operator example uses a clear and concise syntax that makes it evident we’re performing sequential matrix multiplications to transform the character’s position. In contrast, the dot function example achieves the same result but requires a more nested and slightly less readable approach.

Both methods will give the same result, demonstrating their functional similarity despite the syntactic differences. This minimal example underscores the choice between @ and dot as largely a matter of code readability and stylistic preference, rather than functionality.

Performance Differences

πŸ’‘ Is there a significant performance difference between the @ operator and the dot function?

The answer is generally no. Under the hood, both perform the same matrix multiplication operation with similar efficiency. Performance might slightly vary depending on the context, but for most practical purposes, they are interchangeable in terms of speed.

Syntax and Readability

One of the main differences lies in syntax and readability:

# Using the @ operator
result = matrix1 @ matrix2

# Using the dot function
result =, matrix2)

The @ operator allows for a cleaner and more intuitive expression of multiplication, especially when dealing with complex mathematical formulas. It reduces the cognitive load, making it easier for someone reading your code to understand your intentions.

Compatibility Considerations

While the @ operator is sleek and modern, it’s essential to remember it’s only available in Python versions 3.5 and above. For codebases that must remain compatible with earlier versions of Python, or when working in environments where you cannot guarantee the Python version, the dot function remains a reliable and compatible choice.

Best Practices

  • Readability First: Opt for the @ operator when you’re focused on matrix multiplication to enhance code readability.
  • Consider Your Audience: Use the dot function in environments where Python versions earlier than 3.5 are still in use or when you need the extra flexibility it offers.
  • Performance Testing: If you’re in a situation where performance is critical, test both methods in your specific use case. However, remember that differences are likely to be minimal.