__iand__() magic method implements the in-place bitwise AND
x &= y that calculates the result of the bitwise AND operation
x & y, and assigns it to the first operands’ variable
x. This type of in-place operation is also called augmented arithmetic assignment. The method simply returns the new value to be assigned to the first operand.
- When you call
x &= y, Python first attempts to call
- If this is not implemented, it tries the normal bitwise AND operation
- If this is not implemented either, it tries reverse exponentiation operation
y.__rand__(x)with swapped operands.
The result is then assigned to the first operand
x. If none of those operations is implemented, Python raises a
We call this a “Dunder Method” for “Double Underscore Method” (also called “magic method”). To get a list of all dunder methods with explanation, check out our dunder cheat sheet article on this blog.
Basic Example Overriding __iand__
In the following code example, you create a class
Data and define the magic method
- The “self” argument is the default argument of each method and it refers to the object on which it is called—in our case, the first operand of the in-place operation.
- The “other” argument of the in-place method refers to the second operand, i.e.,
yin the in-place operation
x &= y.
The return value of the operation returns a dummy string
'finxter 42' to be assigned to the first operand. In practice, this would be the result of the in-place bitwise AND operation.
class Data: def __iand__(self, other): return 'finxter 42' x = Data() y = Data() x &= y print(x) # finxter 42
In-Place AND &= without __iand__()
To support the in-place bitwise AND operation on a custom class, you don’t have to overwrite the
__iand__() method. Because if the method is not defined, Python will fall back to the normal
__and__() method and assign its result to the first operand.
Here’s an example:
class Data: def __and__(self, other): return 'finxter 42' x = Data() y = Data() x &= y print(x) # finxter 42
Even though the
__iand__() method is not defined, the in-place bitwise AND operation
x &= y still works due to the
__and__() “fallback” magic method!
In-Place AND &= without __iand__() and __and__()
To support in-place bitwise AND
x &= y on a custom class, you don’t even have to overwrite any of the
x.__and__(y) methods. If both are not defined, Python falls back to the reverse
y.__rand__(x) method and assigns its result to the first operand.
Here’s an example where you create a custom class for the first operand that doesn’t support the bitwise AND operation. Then you define a custom class for the second operand that defines the
__rand__() method. For the in-place operation, Python falls back to the
__rand__() method defined on the second operand and assigns it to the first operand
class Data_1: pass class Data_2: def __rand__(self, other): return 'finxter 42' x = Data_1() y = Data_2() x &= y print(x) # finxter 42
TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for &=
If you try to perform in-place bitwise AND
x &= y but neither
y.__rand(x) is defined, Python raises a “
TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for &=". To fix this error, simply define any of those methods before performing the in-place operation.
class Data: pass # ... you should define __iand__ here to prevent error! ... # x = Data() y = Data() x &= y
Traceback (most recent call last): File "C:\Users\xcent\Desktop\code.py", line 8, in <module> x &= y TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for &=: 'Data' and 'Data'
Background Bitwise AND
Python’s bitwise AND operator
x & y performs logical AND on each bit position on the binary representations of integers
y. Thus, each output bit is 1 if both input bits at the same position are 1, otherwise, it’s 0. For example, the integer expression 4 & 3 is translated to binaries 0100 & 0011 which results in 0000 because all four input bit positions are different.
Related Video Compound Operators
Where to Go From Here?
Enough theory. Let’s get some practice!
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While working as a researcher in distributed systems, Dr. Christian Mayer found his love for teaching computer science students.
To help students reach higher levels of Python success, he founded the programming education website Finxter.com. He’s author of the popular programming book Python One-Liners (NoStarch 2020), coauthor of the Coffee Break Python series of self-published books, computer science enthusiast, freelancer, and owner of one of the top 10 largest Python blogs worldwide.
His passions are writing, reading, and coding. But his greatest passion is to serve aspiring coders through Finxter and help them to boost their skills. You can join his free email academy here.