To customize the behavior of the negation operator
-x, override the
__neg__(self) dunder method in your class definition. Python internally calls
x.__neg__() to calculate the inverse (negation) of an object, i.e.,
-x. If the
__neg__() method is not defined, Python will raise a
To use the negation operator
-x on a custom object
x, define the
__neg__() “dunder” magic method that takes one argument: a reference to itself, called
self. You can then use attributes of the custom objects to determine the object’s negation. It can return any object but the convention is to return an object of the same type so that
-(-x) == x.
Let’s have a look at an example next.
In the following code, you create a Person object
alice with a string
name attribute set to
'alice'. The negation is simply the
name string in reverse order by using slicing with negative step size
class Person: def __init__(self, name): self.name = name def __neg__(self): return self.name[::-1] alice = Person('alice') print(-alice) # ecila
The negated object
-alice returns the attribute
'alice' in reverse order as defined in the
__neg__() method. However, this is not a clean way of using the
__neg__ dunder method. Instead, you should always return the same object (per convention) so that the inversion criterion is fulfilled, i.e.,
-(-x) == x assuming the equality dunder method is properly defined.
You can see a proper use in the following example:
class Person: def __init__(self, name): self.name = name def __neg__(self): return Person(self.name[::-1]) def __eq__(self, other): return self.name == other.name alice = Person('alice') print(-(-alice) == alice) # True
[Fixed] TypeError: bad operand type for unary –
If you attempt to use the unary operator
-x on an object
x that doesn’t define the
__neg__ dunder method, Python raises a
TypeError: bad operand type for unary.
class Person: def __init__(self, name): self.name = name alice = Person('alice') print(-alice)
Here’s the error message of this code snippet:
Traceback (most recent call last): File "C:\Users\...\code.py", line 8, in <module> print(-alice) TypeError: bad operand type for unary -: 'Person'
To fix this error, simply define the unary
__neg__() dunder method in the class definition of the object on which you attempt to call the negation operator
This is exemplified here:
class Person: def __init__(self, name): self.name = name def __neg__(self): return Person(self.name[::-1]) alice = Person('alice') neg_alice = -alice print(neg_alice.name) # ecila
Where to Go From Here?
Enough theory. Let’s get some practice!
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