# Python any() Function

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Python’s built-in `any(x)` function takes one iterable as an argument `x` such as a list, tuple, or dictionary. It returns `True` if at least one of the elements in the iterable evaluates to `True` using implicit Boolean conversion, otherwise it returns `False`. If the iterable is empty, e.g., `any([])`, it returns `False` because the condition is not satisfied for any element.

## Interactive Code Shell

Consider the following interactive code snippet:

Exercise: Remove one element from the list so that the `any()` function returns `False`.

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## Example any() for Lists

The following code shows you how to use the `any()` function on different lists.

```# Boolean list with False value
print(any([True, False, True, True]))
# True

# Boolean list without False value
print(any([True, True]))
# True

# Integer list with 0 value
print(any([1, 2, -1, 0]))
# True

# Integer list without 0 value
print(any([1, 2, -1]))
# True

# Nested list with empty inner list
print(any([[], [1, 2, 3]]))
# True

# Nested list with two empty inner lists
print(any([[], []]))
# False

# Empty List
print(any([]))
# False
```

## Example any() for Tuples

If you use the `any()` function on tuples, it’ll return a Boolean value that indicates whether all tuple elements evaluate to `True`.

```print(any((1, 2, 3)))
# True

print(any((0, 0, 0)))
# False

print(any((False, 2==3, -1)))
# True

print(any((True, 3, 1!=1)))
# True
```

## Example any() for Dicts

The `any()` function on dictionaries checks for the iterable of keys (not values) whether at least one key evaluates to `True`. If this is the case, the return value is `True`, otherwise it’s `False`.

```d = {'': 10000,
0: 5000,
tuple(): 0}

print(any(d))
# False

d['x'] = 100000

print(any(d))
# True

```

## Implementation

According to the official Python documentation, the `any()` function is semantically equivalent to the following code snippet:

```def any(iterable):
for element in iterable:
if element:
return True
return False```

So, it goes over all elements in the iterable and uses the element as an if condition to check whether it evaluates to `True` or `False`. As soon as one `True` element is detected, it aborts the loop and returns `True`. This is an optimization called short circuiting and it means that only the first `True` value is evaluated!

## Python any() Function with For Loop

You can also dynamically create an iterable using a generator expression and pass it into the `any()` function. This may be called an “`any()` function with a for loop“.

```print(any(x**2 == 16 for x in range(10)))
# True```

You use the condition `x**2 == 16` which holds only for `x=4`. As you apply this expression for all `x` values from 0 to 9 (included) by using the `range() `function, it mostly returns `False`. Due to short circuiting, the `any()` function returns `True` after evaluating the fifth element `x=4`.

## Summary

Python’s built-in `any(x)` function takes one iterable as an argument `x` such as a list, tuple, or dictionary.

It returns `True` if at least one of the elements in the iterable evaluates to `True` using implicit Boolean conversion, otherwise it returns `False`. If the iterable is empty, `any([])` returns `False` because the condition is not satisfied for any element.

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