chr() function takes one number as argument that is the specified Unicode and returns the character associated to this Unicode argument. For example, the call
chr(101) returns the Unicode character
'e'. The allowed range of arguments are all integers between 0 and 1,114,111 (included)—integers outside this interval will raise a
Here are three examples of passed Unicode numbers transformed into Unicode characters using the
chr() built-in function:
>>> chr(65) 'A' >>> chr(66) 'B' >>> chr(8364) '€'
The syntax is very straightforward:
|Argument||An integer number between 0 and 1,114,111 (included) representing the Unicode number of the desired Unicode symbol.|
|Return Value||Returns a Unicode symbol as a string type of length one.|
Here are some basic usages of the function:
Now, you may ask: what options do you have to pass as an integer? How does the Unicode encoding look like? Let’s dive into the Unicode table next!
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Here’s a small part of the massive Unicode table that maps each Unicode symbol to a decimal number:
|A||latin capital letter a||65|
|B||latin capital letter b||66|
|C||latin capital letter c||67|
|D||latin capital letter d||68|
|E||latin capital letter e||69|
|F||latin capital letter f||70|
|G||latin capital letter g||71|
|H||latin capital letter h||72|
|I||latin capital letter i||73|
|J||latin capital letter j||74|
|K||latin capital letter k||75|
|L||latin capital letter l||76|
|M||latin capital letter m||77|
|N||latin capital letter n||78|
|O||latin capital letter o||79|
|P||latin capital letter p||80|
|Q||latin capital letter q||81|
|R||latin capital letter r||82|
|S||latin capital letter s||83|
|T||latin capital letter t||84|
|U||latin capital letter u||85|
|V||latin capital letter v||86|
|W||latin capital letter w||87|
|X||latin capital letter x||88|
|Y||latin capital letter y||89|
|Z||latin capital letter z||90|
|a||latin small letter a||97|
|b||latin small letter b||98|
|c||latin small letter c||99|
|d||latin small letter d||100|
|e||latin small letter e||101|
|f||latin small letter f||102|
|g||latin small letter g||103|
|h||latin small letter h||104|
|i||latin small letter i||105|
|j||latin small letter j||106|
|k||latin small letter k||107|
|l||latin small letter l||108|
|m||latin small letter m||109|
|n||latin small letter n||110|
|o||latin small letter o||111|
|p||latin small letter p||112|
|q||latin small letter q||113|
|r||latin small letter r||114|
|s||latin small letter s||115|
|t||latin small letter t||116|
|u||latin small letter u||117|
|v||latin small letter v||118|
|w||latin small letter w||119|
|x||latin small letter x||120|
|y||latin small letter y||121|
|z||latin small letter z||122|
|À||latin capital letter a with grave||192|
|Á||latin capital letter a with acute||193|
|Â||latin capital letter a with circumflex||194|
|Ã||latin capital letter a with tilde||195|
|Ä||latin capital letter a with diaeresis||196|
|Å||latin capital letter a with ring above||197|
|Æ||latin capital letter ae||198|
|Ç||latin capital letter c with cedilla||199|
|È||latin capital letter e with grave||200|
|É||latin capital letter e with acute||201|
|Ê||latin capital letter e with circumflex||202|
|Ë||latin capital letter e with diaeresis||203|
|Ì||latin capital letter i with grave||204|
|Í||latin capital letter i with acute||205|
|Î||latin capital letter i with circumflex||206|
|Ï||latin capital letter i with diaeresis||207|
|Ð||latin capital letter eth||208|
|Ñ||latin capital letter n with tilde||209|
|Ò||latin capital letter o with grave||210|
|Ó||latin capital letter o with acute||211|
|Ô||latin capital letter o with circumflex||212|
|Õ||latin capital letter o with tilde||213|
|Ö||latin capital letter o with diaeresis||214|
|Ø||latin capital letter o with stroke||216|
|Ù||latin capital letter u with grave||217|
|Ú||latin capital letter u with acute||218|
|Û||latin capital letter u with circumflex||219|
|Ü||latin capital letter u with diaeresis||220|
|Ý||latin capital letter y with acute||221|
|Þ||latin capital letter thorn||222|
|ß||latin small letter sharp s||223|
|à||latin small letter a with grave||224|
|á||latin small letter a with acute||225|
|â||latin small letter a with circumflex||226|
|ã||latin small letter a with tilde||227|
|ä||latin small letter a with diaeresis||228|
|å||latin small letter a with ring above||229|
|æ||latin small letter ae||230|
|ç||latin small letter c with cedilla||231|
|è||latin small letter e with grave||232|
|é||latin small letter e with acute||233|
|ê||latin small letter e with circumflex||234|
|ë||latin small letter e with diaeresis||235|
|ì||latin small letter i with grave||236|
|í||latin small letter i with acute||237|
|î||latin small letter i with circumflex||238|
|ï||latin small letter i with diaeresis||239|
|ð||latin small letter eth||240|
By passing the number from the third column into the
chr() function, you obtain the associated Unicode symbol in the third column. Go ahead, try it yourself!
Tool: Integer to Unicode in Python
How to convert an integer number to a Unicode symbol in Python? Use the chr(i) function and pass the integer number as an argument!
Exercise: Try to obtain the Unicode symbol ð from the above table by changing the code in the interactive code shell!
ValueError: chr() arg not in range(0x110000)
If you experience the ValueError: chr() arg not in range(0x110000) message, you use the chr() function with a wrong argument i. The argument i is either smaller than 0 or larger than 1,114,111. You can fix it by passing an integer 0 <= i <= 1114111.
Here’s an example of two wrong arguments
i=1114112 that cause the
ValueError, and one correct argument
>>> chr(0) '\x00' >>> chr(-1) Traceback (most recent call last): File "<pyshell#14>", line 1, in <module> chr(-1) ValueError: chr() arg not in range(0x110000) >>> chr(1114112) Traceback (most recent call last): File "<pyshell#15>", line 1, in <module> chr(1114112) ValueError: chr() arg not in range(0x110000) >>> chr(1114111) '\U0010ffff'
How to Convert a Unicode Integer to a String?
To convert a Unicode number
i to the associated Unicode symbol, use the
chr(i) function. For example, the result of
chr(65) is the Unicode symbol
'A'. The inverse function is the
ord(x) that converts Unicode symbol
'A' back to integer
>>> chr(65) 'A'
How to Convert a Unicode Symbol to an Integer?
To convert a Unicode symbol
x to the associated Unicode integer number, use the
ord(x) function. For example, the result of
ord('A') is the Unicode integer
65. The inverse function is the
chr(i) that converts Unicode integer
65 back to Unicode symbol
>>> ord('A') 65
chr() function takes one number as argument that is the specified Unicode and returns the character associated to this Unicode argument.
For example, the call
chr(101) returns the Unicode character
>>> chr(101) 'e'
The allowed range of arguments are all integers between 0 and 1,114,111 (included)—integers outside this interval will raise a
>>> chr(-1) Traceback (most recent call last): File "<pyshell#12>", line 1, in <module> chr(-1) ValueError: chr() arg not in range(0x110000)
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