# How to Combine Two Python Lists and Remove Duplicates in Second List?

Problem: Given two lists `[1, 2, 2, 4]` and `[2, 5, 5, 5, 6]`. How do you combine those lists to the new list `[1, 2, 2, 4, 5, 6]` by removing the duplicates in the second list?

Note: You want to remove all duplicates in the second list and the elements in the second list that are already in the first list.

Solution: Use the following three steps to combine two lists and remove the duplicates in the second list:

• Convert the first and second lists to a set using the `set(...)` constructor.
• Use the set minus operation to get all elements that are in the second list but not in the first list.
• Create a new list by concatenating those elements to the first list.

Here’s the code:

```# Create the two lists
l1 = [1, 2, 2, 4]
l2 = [2, 5, 5, 5, 6]

# Find elements that are in second but not in first
new = set(l2) - set(l1)

# Create the new list using list concatenation
l = l1 + list(new)
print(l)
# [1, 2, 2, 4, 5, 6]```

Try it yourself in our interactive Python shell:

Exercise: Can you rewrite this in a single line of Python code (Python One-Liner)?

Let’s dive into the more concise one-liner to accomplish the same thing:

`l = l1 + list(set(l2) - set(l1))`

If you want to learn about the most Pythonic way to remove ALL duplicates from a Python list, read on:

## How to Remove Duplicates From a Python List?

Naive Method: Go over each element and check whether this element already exists in the list. If so, remove it. However, this takes a few lines of code.

Efficient Method: A shorter and more concise way is to create a dictionary out of the elements in the list to remove all duplicates and convert the dictionary back to a list. This preserves the order of the original list elements.

```lst = ['Alice', 'Bob', 'Bob', 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3]
print(list(dict.fromkeys(lst)))
# ['Alice', 'Bob', 1, 2, 3]```
1. Convert the list to a dictionary with `dict.fromkeys(lst)`.
2. Convert the dictionary into a list with `list(dict)`.

Each list element becomes a new key to the dictionary. For example, the list `[1, 2, 3]` becomes the dictionary `{1:None, 2:None, 3:None}`. All elements that occur multiple times will be assigned to the same key. Thus, the dictionary contains only unique keys—there cannot be multiple equal keys.

As dictionary values, you take dummy values (per default).

Then, you convert the dictionary back to a list, throwing away the dummy values.

Here’s the code:

```>>> lst = [1, 1, 1, 3, 2, 5, 5, 2]
>>> dic = dict.fromkeys(lst)
>>> dic
{1: None, 3: None, 2: None, 5: None}
>>> duplicate_free = list(dic)
>>> duplicate_free
[1, 3, 2, 5]```

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