Python provides the operator `x %= y`

to calculate the modulo operation `x % y`

, and assign the result in-place to the first operands variable `x`

. You can set up the in-place modulo behavior for your own class by overriding the magic “dunder” method `__imod__(self, other)`

in your class definition.

>>> x = 9 >>> x %= 4 >>> x 1

The expression `x %= y`

is syntactical sugar for the longer-form `x = x % y`

:

>>> x = 9 >>> x = x % 4 >>> x 1

Let’s explore some examples on different data types of the operands.

Table of Contents

## Integer Example

The `%=`

operator on integer operands stores the remainder of the division of both operands in the left-hand operands’ variable name.

>>> x = 42 >>> x %= 40 >>> x 2

## Float Example

If at least one of the operands is a float value, the result is also a float—float is infectious!

>>> x = 42 >>> x %= 40.0 >>> x 2.0

## Incompatible Data Type

What if two operands have an incompatible data type—unlike floats and integers? For example, if you try to calculate in-place modulo of two list variables?

>>> [1, 2] % [3, 4] Traceback (most recent call last): File "<pyshell#16>", line 1, in <module> [1, 2] % [3, 4] TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for %: 'list' and 'list'

The result of incompatible operation is a `TypeError`

. You can fix it by using only compatible data types for the in-place modulo operation.

Can you use in-place modulo on custom objects? Yes!

## Python In-Place Modulo Magic Method

To use the in-place modulo operator `%=`

on custom objects, you need to define the `__imod__()`

method (*“dunder method”, “magic method”*) that takes two arguments `self`

and `other`

, updates the first argument `self`

with the remainder of the division, and returns the updated object.

In the following code, you use the in-place modulo on two `Data`

objects by defining a custom `__imod__()`

method:

class Data: def __init__(self, data): self.data = data def __imod__(self, other): self.data %= other.data return self x = Data(40) y = Data(11) x %= y print(x.data) # 7

You can see that the content of the first operand is updated as a result of the in-place modulo operation.

## Modulo Video Explanation [Background]

**Related Article: **Python Modulo Operator

## Python In-Place Operators

In-place assignment operators (also called *compound* assignment operators) perform an operation in-place on a variable provided as first operand. They overwrite the value of the first operand variable with the result of the operation when performing the operator without assignment. For example, `x += 3`

is the same as `x = x + 3`

of first calculating the result of `x +3`

and then assigning it to the variable x.

Operator | Name | Short Example | Equivalent Long Example |
---|---|---|---|

`=` | In-place Assignment | `x = 3` | |

`+=` | In-place Addition | `x += 3` | `x = x + 3` |

`-=` | In-place Subtraction | `x -= 3` | `x = x - 3` |

`*=` | In-place Multiplication | `x *= 3` | `x = x * 3` |

`/=` | In-place Division | `x /= 3` | `x = x / 3` |

`%=` | In-place Modulo | `x %= 3` | `x = x % 3` |

`//=` | In-place Integer Division | `x //= 3` | `x = x // 3` |

`**=` | In-place Power | `x **= 3` | `x = x ** 3` |

`&=` | In-place Bitwise And | `x &= 3` | `x = x & 3` |

`|=` | In-place Bitwise Or | `x |= 3` | `x = x | 3` |

`^=` | In-place Bitwise XOR | `x ^= 3` | `x = x ^ 3` |

`>>=` | In-place Bitwise Shift Right | `x >>= 3` | `x = x >> 3` |

<<= | In-place Bitwise Shift Left | `x <<= 5` | `x = x << 5` |

While working as a researcher in distributed systems, Dr. Christian Mayer found his love for teaching computer science students.

To help students reach higher levels of Python success, he founded the programming education website Finxter.com. He’s author of the popular programming book Python One-Liners (NoStarch 2020), coauthor of the Coffee Break Python series of self-published books, computer science enthusiast, freelancer, and owner of one of the top 10 largest Python blogs worldwide.

His passions are writing, reading, and coding. But his greatest passion is to serve aspiring coders through Finxter and help them to boost their skills. You can join his free email academy here.