Python List of Strings to Bytes (5 Easy Ways)

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πŸ’‘ Problem Formulation: In many programming scenarios with Python, you might need to convert a list of strings to a corresponding list of byte objects. For instance, if you have an input list ['hello', 'world'], you might want the output to be [b'hello', b'world'], where each string in the list is converted to its bytes form. This conversion is often required when dealing with binary data streams or low-level network communication where data is transmitted in bytes rather than strings.

Method 1: Using a For Loop

The first method involves iterating through the list with a for loop and converting each string to its bytes representation using the encode() function. This is a very straightforward approach that allows you to individually handle each conversion, potentially catching errors or handling exceptions for specific strings.

Here’s an example:

strings = ['hello', 'world', 'python']
bytes_list = []

for s in strings:


This code snippet creates an empty list called bytes_list. It then iterates over each string in the strings list, encodes it as UTF-8 bytes using the encode() method, and appends it to bytes_list. The result is a list of bytes objects.

Method 2: Using List Comprehension

List comprehension offers a more concise and Pythonic way to convert a list of strings to bytes. It provides a shorter syntax when you want to create a new list based on the values of an existing list. In Python, list comprehensions provide a clear and compact way to apply an operation to each item in a sequence.

Here’s an example:

strings = ['hello', 'world', 'bytes']
bytes_list = [s.encode('utf-8') for s in strings]


Here, we use a list comprehension to encode each string in the strings list into UTF-8 encoded bytes. The encode() function is called for every element s in the strings list, and the result is a new list bytes_list that contains byte objects.

Method 3: Using the map() Function

The map() function is used to apply a specific function to every item of an iterable (like a list) and returns a map object (which is an iterator). By combining map() with the encode() method, each string in the list can be converted to bytes.

Here’s an example:

strings = ['hello', 'world', 'data']
bytes_list = list(map(lambda s: s.encode('utf-8'), strings))


In this example, map() is used to apply a lambda function that encodes each string in the strings list to bytes. The result is then converted to a list to get a list of byte strings.

Method 4: Using the bytes() Constructor

The bytes() constructor converts an object to an immutable bytes object. When used with strings, it requires specifying the encoding type. This method is useful when you need immutable bytes objects.

Here’s an example:

strings = ['hello', 'world', 'immutable']
bytes_list = [bytes(s, 'utf-8') for s in strings]


In this snippet, we use a list comprehension to iterate over the strings list. Each string is passed to the bytes() constructor with ‘utf-8’ as the encoding argument, converting it to an immutable bytes object.

Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Using codecs.encode()

The codecs module includes a method encode() that can be used to convert strings to bytes. If you’re working within a script where you’ve already imported codecs for other purposes, using this method can save you a line of code.

Here’s an example:

import codecs

strings = ['hello', 'world', 'codec']
bytes_list = [codecs.encode(s, 'utf-8') for s in strings]


This one-liner involves a list comprehension that calls codecs.encode() for each string in the strings list, specifying the ‘utf-8’ encoding, and collects the resulting bytes objects into bytes_list.


  • Method 1 (For Loop):
    • Simple and allows for customized handling.
    • Can be slower and more verbose.
  • Method 2 (List Comprehension):
    • Pythonic with cleaner syntax.
    • Can become less readable with complex logic.
  • Method 3 (map() Function):
    • Functional programming approach.
    • Returns an iterator, which requires extra conversion to list.
  • Method 4 (bytes() Constructor):
    • Produces immutable byte objects.
    • Not frequently used and might be less intuitive.
  • Bonus Method 5 (codecs.encode()):
    • Useful if codecs module is already in use.
    • Might be less familiar to those not using codecs elsewhere.

List comprehensions are usually the most Pythonic way, but for loops can offer more control. The map() function and bytes() constructor are there for specific use cases or preferences. The codecs module’s method could be an advantage in scripts where this library is already imported for other purposes.

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