[Summary]  Independent Work: Choice, Necessity, and the Gig Economy

McKinsey, 2015

 - A high degree of    autonomy  - Payment by gig or sales  - Short-term relationship    between worker and client

Definition Independent Work

20 to 30 percent of the working-age population in the United States and the EU-15, or up to 162 million individuals, engage in independent work


At least 15 percent of workers use online platforms such as Uber and Upwork


Approximately 40 percent are casual earners, who use independent work for supplemental income and do so by choice


Medium- to high-income households make up more than 75 percent of all independent earners.


If everyone had the opportunity to pursue their preferred working style, roughly 40 to 50 percent of the working-age population in the US and the EU would be independent.


Independent workers are happier, more satisfied with their work, enjoy their topics more, feel more empowered and self-reliant, are more flexible and spend more time with their families and friends.  They also earn more and receive more recognition.